eISSN: 1731-2531
ISSN: 1642-5758
Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
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5/2022
vol. 54
 
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abstract:
Original paper

Awake craniotomy with dexmedetomidine during resection of brain tumours located in eloquent regions

Bogusława Ewa Lechowicz-Głogowska
1
,
Agnieszka Uryga
2
,
Artur Weiser
3
,
Beata Salomon-Tuchowska
4
,
Małgorzata Burzyńska
1
,
Wojciech Fortuna
3, 5
,
Magdalena Kasprowicz
2
,
Paweł Tabakow
3

1.
Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
2.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland
3.
Department of Neurosurgery, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
4.
Inpatient Psychology Unit, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
5.
Bacteriophage Laboratory, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2022; 54, 5: 347–356
Online publish date: 2022/12/30
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Introduction
An awake craniotomy (AC) is the gold standard for the resection of supra­tentorial brain tumours in eloquent areas. Intraoperative monitoring “on-demand” of essential eloquent brain functions and the increasing need to preserve higher intellectual functions during surgery requires a unique anaesthetic approach during AC. Dexmedetomidine is considered the first-choice pharmacological agent for sedation during AC.

Material and methods
Twenty-six patients with a single brain tumour located in areas of eloquent brain function were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients underwent AC under conscious sedation. Motor-evoked potentials and brainstem-evoked auditory potentials were measured using neurophysiological tests during surgery to assess brain potentials. Intraoperative brain relaxation was reached using a modified Bristow scale. Neuromonitoring and psychological tests were maintained until meningeal closure.

Results
All operations were carried out successfully, and no reoperations were needed. No significant impact on circulatory and respiratory parameters was observed during conscious sedation based on dexmedetomidine. Neither instrumental airway support nor conversion to general anaesthesia was necessary. Brain relaxation was good in 84% of cases. Intraoperative epileptic episodes were observed in 15% of the patients. Neuro­logical and psychological monitoring was satisfactory. Unaltered muscle force was observed postoperatively in 88% of the patients.

Conclusions
AC performed under conscious sedation, and dexmedetomidine infusion without instrumental airway support, was safe and well-tolerated by patients with comfortable physiological sleep for most of the procedure. This approach to AC was associated with minimal risk of perioperative adverse events and may be particularly beneficial in patients with severe comorbidities.

keywords:

dexmedetomidine, conscious sedation, craniotomy, anaesthesia

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