eISSN: 2299-0046
ISSN: 1642-395X
Advances in Dermatology and Allergology/Postępy Dermatologii i Alergologii
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
6/2021
vol. 38
 
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abstract:
Original paper

Bullous diseases caused by KRT1 gene mutations: from epidermolytic hyperkeratosis to a novel variant of epidermolysis bullosa simplex

Katarzyna Osipowicz
1
,
Katarzyna Wertheim-Tysarowska
2
,
Bartłomiej Kwiek
1
,
Ewa Jankowska
3
,
Monika Gos
2
,
Agnieszka Charzewska
2
,
Katarzyna Woźniak
1
,
Cezary Kowalewski
1

1.
Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
2.
Department of Medical Genetics, Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland
3.
Department of Histology and Embryology, Centre for Biostructure, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Adv Dermatol Allergol 2021; XXXVIII (6): 1032–1038
Online publish date: 2020/09/02
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Introduction
Mutations in the KRT1 gene encoding keratin 1 cause epidermolytic hyperkeratosis characterized by blistering in the neonatal period followed by ichthyotic hyperkeratosis in childhood and adolescent life. We observed a spectrum of clinical manifestations of blistering disorders caused by different mutations in the same KRT1 gene.

Aim
To analyse the phenotypic spectrum of blistering disorders caused by the KRT1 mutations.

Material and methods
Four patients with an epidermal barrier defect manifesting as blistering with the KRT1 mutations were included to the study. The clinical course of the disease was analysed, histology, immunofluorescence and electron microscopic examinations were performed.

Results
An adult patient with severe ichthyosis with p.Asn188Lys mutation in exon 1 of KRT1 who occasionally develops blisters in adolescence represents epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, a newborn child who died 4 days after birth due to disruption of the epidermal barrier (extensive blister and erosions) with mutation p.Ser193Pro in the KTR1 gene and two adult sisters harbouring heterozygous mutation c.591+1A>G in the KRT1 gene who present superficial blisters induced by mild trauma from the birth up to adolescent life without ichthyosis suggesting the diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa simplex. Histopathology in all adult patients showed cytoplasm disruption in keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum with keratohyalin granule-like structures and, on the ultrastructural level, the presence of keratin clumping confirming the pathology of keratin intermediate filaments.

Conclusions
This study extends the knowledge of the clinical spectrum for the KRT1 gene mutations. This is the first description of familial dominant epidermolysis bullosa simplex linked to the KRT1 mutation.

keywords:

KRT1 gene, epidermolysis bullosa simplex, bullous ichthyosis, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis

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