eISSN: 2299-0054
ISSN: 1895-4588
Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
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vol. 12
Original paper

Clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter embolization for vascular complications after percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Necdet Poyraz
Mehmet Balasar
İbrahim Erdem Gökmen
Osman Koç
Mehmet Giray Sönmez
Arif Aydın
Yunus Emre Göger
Ahmet Öztürk

Videosurgery Miniinv 2017; 12 (4): 403–408
Online publish date: 2017/07/20
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Introduction: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the preferred procedure for safe and effective surgical treatment of kidney stones. Hemorrhage is the most serious complication of PNL, resulting from pseudoaneurysm (PA) or arteriovenous fistula (AVF), and can usually be controlled with conservative treatment.

Aim: To evaluate endovascular treatments and outcomes of vascular complications observed after PNL.

Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed data on 19 patients who underwent renal embolization due to post-PNL renal artery bleeding between March 2005 and September 2016. Embolization materials included embolization coils and glue. The incidence of post-PNL vascular complications and their endovascular treatments, outcomes, and the follow-up data were analyzed.

Results: Nineteen (1.1%) of 1,609 patients (mean age: 44.9 years, range: 19–75 years) underwent angiography and subsequent transcatheter embolization to control bleeding. The mean time to onset of hemorrhage was 7.2 days after PNL (range: 3–18 days). The PNL entry site was the lower calyx in 15 patients, the middle calyx in 3, and the upper calyx in 1. PA, AVF, and PA plus AVF occurred in 14, 5, and 3 of the 19 renal angiography patients, respectively. Embolization of the affected vessels was successful in all 19 patients. The embolization materials of coil, glue, and coil plus glue were used in 16, 3, and 2 patients, respectively.

Conclusions: Severe hematuria is a rare complication of PNL and can be successfully treated with transcatheter embolization.


percutaneous nephrolithotomy, renal vascular complications, transcatheter embolization, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula

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