ISSN: 2451-0637
Archives of Medical Science - Civilization Diseases
Current volume Archive About the journal Abstracting and indexing Contact Instructions for authors Ethical standards and procedures

1/2021
vol. 6
 
Share:
Share:
more
 
 
abstract:
Clinical research

Comparison of cotton swab to Whatman cellulose paper as media for examination of biomarkers from diabetic ulcers

Ronald W. Kartika
1
,
Idrus Alwi
2
,
Em Yunir
2
,
Sarwono Waspadji
2
,
Franciscus D. Suyatna
3
,
Suzzana Immanuel
4
,
Saleha Sungkar
5
,
Jusuf Rachmat
6
,
Mirta Hediyati Reksodiputro
7
,
Todung Silalahi
8
,
Saptawati Bardosono
9

1.
Doctoral Program in Medical Science Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta Indonesia; Department of Surgery, Krida Wacana Christian University, Jakarta, Indonesia
2.
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia – Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
3.
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
4.
Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia – Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
5.
Department of Clinical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
6.
Department of Thoracic Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
7.
Departement Facial Plastic Reconstructive Division, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
8.
Department of Internal Medicine, Krida Wacana Christian University, Jakarta, Indonesia
9.
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Arch Med Sci Civil Dis 2021; 6: e78–e83
Online publish date: 2021/06/30
View full text
Get citation
ENW
EndNote
BIB
JabRef, Mendeley
RIS
Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero
AMA
APA
Chicago
Harvard
MLA
Vancouver
 
Introduction
Chronic wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers, require proper diagnostics. Proper wound care must be supported by proper diagnostic procedures, one of which is the diagnosis of biomarkers that accelerate and inhibit wound healing, consistent for wound analysis. Many researchers have stated the importance of gelatinase, collagenase and matrix metalloprotease (MMP) levels and their role in wound healing. A balance between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inflammatory cytokines, MMPs and tissue matrix metalloprotease inhibitors (TIMPs) is indispensable in the wound healing process. Previous test results showed Whatmann had the ability to carry out cytokines and proteases in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). The purpose of this study was to compare the sampling technique with the cotton swab technique and use Whatman cellulose paper as a preliminary study. The biomarkers taken were VEGF, interleukin 6 (IL-6), MMP-9 and TIMP-1 as representatives of growth factors, markers of inflammation and protease enzymes. The aim of the study was to determine the standard for taking commonly used media practicality for the extraction of growth factor (GF) and protein from the wound surface.

Material and methods
Six DFU subjects were included in this study, and divided into two groups based on the method of topical extraction: the cotton group and the Whatman paper group. The swab method is to use a cotton swab on the center of the wound and rotate it about 3 times until the cotton swab is wet. The Whatman method involves sticking Whatman paper to the wound surface, applying light pressure and leaving it for 15 min. Cotton swabs and Whatman paper were placed in Eppendorf tubes with 1.5 cm3 of NaCl and processed by making lysates in an integrated laboratory. Furthermore, cotton swabs and Whatman paper containing wound fluid in the Eppendorf tube were centrifuged immediately at 10,000 rpm for 3 min at room temperature. The resulting cell-free supernatant was subjected to analysis by the ELISA method. VEGF, interleukin-6 and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 proteins were calculated by statistic analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to present the variable location and type of injury. Quantitative variables are summarized as mean with standard deviation (SD). The relationship between levels of biomarkers obtained from concurrently collected wound fluids (cotton swab and Whatman) was assessed using an independent t test analysis using SPSS 2015 software, version 20.0

Results
There was a significant difference in material collection from cotton swabs compared to the material collection method with Whatman paper for MMP-9 protein (p = 0.028) and TIMP-1 (p = 0.030). Meanwhile, for VEGF and IL-6, there were no insignificant differences between the two methods of taking the material on the diabetic foot ulcers surface.

Conclusions
Diagnostic wound fluid in diabetic foot ulcers using a non-pressure wound swab (Levine technique) can be considered for the collection of wound fluid from diabetic foot ulcers for ELISA examination as a guideline for further treatment.

keywords:

diabetic foot ulcer, Levine cotton swab, Whatman cellulose paper, ELISA biomarker

Quick links
© 2021 Termedia Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Developed by Bentus.