ISSN: 2544-4395
Physiotherapy Quarterly
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vol. 31
Original paper

Effect of a vestibular-stimulating training program on motor skills in conjunction with cognitive aptitude of young school-aged children

Asmaa Salah El-Sayed Atwa
1, 2
Gehan Mosaad Abd El-Maksoud
Emad Abd El-Maksoud Mabrouk Mahgoub

Damanhour Medical National Institute, General Organization for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes, Ministry of Health, Damanhour, El-Buhayra, Egypt
Department of Physical Therapy for Paediatrics and Its Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Pharos University,Alexandria, Egypt
Department of Physical Therapy for Pediatrics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Psychology Department, Faculty of Arts, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Physiother Quart. 2023;31(3):65–79
Online publish date: 2023/08/30
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The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the Minds-in-Motion Maze program on motor and cognitive abilities in school-aged children.

The experimental design used was a randomised controlled trial. Participants, belonging to a public primary school, were 100 young children (50% boys) ranging from 6.00 to 8.50 years old (7.32 ± 0.82 years in average). They were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (50 subjects/each), and two dropped out from each group. While the control group received unstructured physical activity, the children in the experimental group engaged in the Minds-in- Motion Maze vestibular stimulation program (24 weeks of a 30-minute structured PA on a daily basis). A pre- and post-test were conducted to evaluate the performance in motor skills and cognitive ability using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor ProficiencyTM Second Edition, complete form and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition.

The analysed data indicated that engaging in Minds-in-Motion Maze activities positively influenced the motor and cognitive abilities among the children. The between-group analysis exhibited strong significant improvement in the experimental group compared to the control group (p < 0.05), which did not show significant development. Boys outperformed girls on most tests, notably as age increased. The within-groups analysis (experimental group) demonstrated significant differences in the post-intervention gains of all motor and cognitive parameters (p < 0.05).

Taken together, the current results reinforce causal evidence for the effects of Minds- in-Motion Maze based physical activity on improving both motor skills and cognitive aptitude in school-aged children.


physical activity, motor skills, cognitive ability, vestibular system, Minds-in-Motion Maze, school-aged children

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