eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
4/2020
vol. 45
 
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abstract:
Experimental immunology

Effect of low dose IL-2 loaded chitosan nanoparticles on natural killer and regulatory T cell expression in experimentally induced autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus

Salma Aboelnazar
1
,
Hossam Ghoneim
1
,
Thanaa Shalaby
2
,
Eman Bahgat
3
,
Mai Moaaz
1

1.
Department of Immunology and Allergy, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt
2.
Department of Biophysics, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Egypt
3.
Department of Pharmaceutics, Almaamora Hospital, Ministry of Health, Alexandria, Egypt
Cent Eur J Immunol 2020; 45 (4): 382-392
Online publish date: 2021/01/30
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Introduction
Natural killer cells (NK) initiate pancreatic islets cell lyses in autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Loss of T regulatory cells (Treg) at disease onset facilitates activation and accumulation of NKs in the pancreatic microenvironment. A proper low dose interleukin 2 (IL-2) could enhance Tregs and enforce control and regulation of pro-inflammatory NKs. This relation needs to be studied to improve therapeutic strategies aimed at resetting the balance between Tregs and proinflammatory cells.

Material and methods
We used novel formulations of low dose IL-2 loaded on chitosan nanoparticles. The study included 116 T1D BALB/c mice experimentally induced by streptozotocin, divided into groups. Their splenocytes were maintained in a short-term culture for assessment of expression of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg and NKp46+NK by both flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). In vitro suppressor-assay was used in order to assess the suppressor effect of Treg cells after exogenous IL-2 treatment.

Results
NK cell expression, NKp46 level and NK cell functions were modulated in mice injected with IL-2 loaded chitosan nanoparticles than other groups. A statistical inverse correlation was found between Treg and NK cell expression in IL-2 loaded chitosan with (0.3 µIU) (p = 0.047) and this correlation was related to Foxp3 expression on Treg cells. The modified expression of NK and NKp46 was noticed in mice injected with (0.3 µIU) for longer duration (three weeks) (p < 0.001) but the NK functions did not show any significant changes with prolonged treatment.

Conclusions
Low dose (0.3) µIU IL-2 nanoparticles effectively modulated NK and NKp46 expression. It selectively modulates the suppressive activity of Tregs indicating a significant role of Tregs in NK activation and function by controlling the availability of IL-2 in the microenvironment.

keywords:

streptozotocin, natural killer, T-regulatory, interleukin 2, BALB/c mice

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