en POLSKI
eISSN: 2083-8441
ISSN: 2081-237X
Pediatric Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
 
4/2022
vol. 28
 
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abstract:
Original paper

Glycaemic control and factors affecting it in type 1 diabetes in children: experience from a tertiary care centre in India

Devi Dayal
1
,
Jaivinder Yadav
1
,
Rakesh Kumar
1
,
Saniya Gupta
1
,
Arti Yadav
1
,
Pamali M. Nanda
1

1.
Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2022; 28 (4): 281–286
Online publish date: 2022/07/27
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Introduction
Optimal glycaemic control is essential for the prevention of future micro- and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The type of insulin, the type of insulin delivery device, the caregiver’s knowledge, the patient’s age, duration of diabetes, and self-monitoring of blood glucose affect glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes. In the present study, we analysed glycaemic control and factors affecting it at a tertiary care centre in northern India.

Material and methods
A retrospective review of records of patients registered between 2015 and 2018 was done. The data on demographic and disease-related factors were collected from the records. The different groups were compared with the t-test, one-way ANOVA, or Kruskal-Wallis test.

Results
The mean age at the time of evaluation was 10.43 ±4.04 years (2–21 years), and the mean disease duration was 46.61 ±28.49 months (16–141 months). Most of the patients were prepubertal and using a basal-bolus regimen. The mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) was 7.96 ±1.46%, but only 24% had HbA1c below the International Society of Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) recommended desirable level of below 7%. Forty-six patients suffered one or more micro-macrovascular complications, and dyslipidaemia was the most common complication. Children with a longer duration of disease (8.39 ±1.42% vs. 7.59 ±1.65%), an episode of DKA (diabetes ketoacidosis) within a year of evaluation (9.19 ±2.54% vs. 7.93 ±1.39%), lower maternal (8.22 ±1.37% vs. 7.56 ±1.45%) and paternal education (8.26 ±1.67% vs. 7.78 ±1.30%), and hyperthyroid state (9.43 ±2.28% vs. 7.91 ±1.45%) had higher HbA1c.

Conclusions
Better diabetes education focusing on parents with lower education strata and children with longer disease duration and poor compliance can help improve glycaemic control in developing countries like India.

keywords:

type 1 diabetes, glycaemic control, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), education


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