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HIV & AIDS Review. International Journal of HIV-Related Problems
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vol. 17
Research paper

HIV-related stigma experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in coastal South India

Arjun B. Yathiraj, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, John T. Ramapuram, Nithin Kumar, Prasanna Mithra, Rekha Thapar, Vaman Kulkarni, Ramesh Holla, Darshan B.B., Prasanth Narahari

HIV AIDS Rev 2018; 17, 1: 30-35
Online publish date: 2018/02/07
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The present study assessed the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related stigma and the factors influencing it among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in tertiary care hospitals at Mangalore, South India. Stigma related to HIV still persists as a major public health issue globally and varies from person to person. The various forms of HIV-related stigma are personalized stigma, disclosure stigma, negative self-image stigma, and public attitude stigma.

Material and methods
In this cross-sectional study, 409 PLHIV aged ≥ 18 years were interviewed from April 2014 to April 2015. HIV-related stigma was assessed using the “revised HIV stigma scale”. Socio-demographic characteristics and factors affecting HIV stigma were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The association between various domains of HIV-related stigma with socio-demographic characteristics was assessed using one way ANOVA (analysis of variance) and student t-test. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

Among the HIV-related stigma domains, disclosure and public attitudes stigma showed higher mean scores followed by negative self-image stigma. Personalized stigma domain showed the least scores in our study. Our study identified that HIV-related stigma was higher among males, older participants, those who were married, of a higher socio-economic status, on a longer duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and participants who had travelled more distance to procure ART.

Counseling PLHIV and educating care givers and the community is essential for tackling stigmatization among PLHIV. Mitigating stigma through multi-dimensional intervention strategies is crucial to overcome stigma associated with HIV/AIDS.


HIV-related stigma, revised HIV stigma scale, PLHIV, South India

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