eISSN: 1896-9151
ISSN: 1734-1922
Archives of Medical Science
Current issue Archive Manuscripts accepted About the journal Special issues Editorial board Abstracting and indexing Subscription Contact Instructions for authors
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
1/2018
vol. 14
 
Share:
Share:
more
 
 
abstract:
Guidelines/recommendations

Hypercholesterolaemia – practical information for non-specialists

Handrean Soran, Safwaan Adam, Jamal B. Mohammad, Jan H. Ho, Jonathan D. Schofield, See Kwok, Tarza Siahmansur, Yifen Liu, Akheel A. Syed, Shaishav S. Dhage, Claudia Stefanutti, Rachelle Donn, Rayaz A. Malik, Maciej Banach, Paul N. Durrington

Arch Med Sci 2018; 14, 1: 1–21
Online publish date: 2017/12/19
View full text
Get citation
ENW
EndNote
BIB
JabRef, Mendeley
RIS
Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero
AMA
APA
Chicago
Harvard
MLA
Vancouver
 
Hypercholesterolaemia is amongst the most common conditions encountered in the medical profession. It remains one of the key modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and there have been recent advances in the risk stratification methods and treatment options available. In this review, we provide a background into hypercholesterolaemia for non-specialists and consider the merits of the different risk assessment tools available. We also provide detailed considerations as to: i) when to start treatment, ii) what targets to aim for and iii) the role of low density lipoprotein cholesterol.
keywords:

cardiovascualr risk, hypercholesterolaemia, lipid disorders, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, practical recommendations

references:
World Health Organisation. Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data: Raised Cholesterol. Available from: http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/cholesterol_text/en/.
Durrington PN. Hyperlipidaemia. Diagnosis and Management. 3rd ed. Hodder Arnold, London 2007.
Charlton-Menys V, Durrington PN. Human cholesterol metabolism and therapeutic molecules. Exp Physiol 2008; 93: 27-42.
Bhatnagar D, Soran H, Durrington PN. Hypercholesterolaemia and its management. BMJ 2008; 337: a993.
Charlton-Menys V, Durrington P. Apolipoproteins AI and B as therapeutic targets. J Intern Med 2006; 259: 462-72.
Franssen R, Monajemi H, Stroes ES, Kastelein JJ. Obesity and dyslipidemia. Med Clin North Am 2011; 95: 893-902.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Familial hypercholesterolaemia: identification and management. NICE Clinical Guidance 71. London: NICE; 2008. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG71.
Soran H, Hama S, Yadav R, Durrington PN. HDL functionality. Curr Opin Lipidol 2012; 23: 353-66.
Otocka-Kmiecik A, Mikhailidis DP, Nicholls SJ, Davidson M, Rysz J, Banach M. Dysfunctional HDL: a novel important diagnostic and therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease? Prog Lipid Res 2012; 51: 314-24.
Rysz-Gorzynska M, Banach M. Subfractions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and dysfunctional HDL in chronic kidney disease patients. Arch Med Sci 2016; 12: 844-9.
Rosenson RS, Brewer HB Jr, Davidson WS, et al. Cholesterol efflux and atheroprotection: advancing the concept of reverse cholesterol transport. Circulation 2012; 125: 1905-19.
BHF CVD STATISTICS COMPENDIUM 2017 [Internet]. BHF. 2017. Available from: https://www.bhf.org.uk/research/heart-statistics/heart-statistics-publications/cardiovascular-disease-statistics-2017.
Chen Z, Peto R, Collins R, MacMahon S, Lu J, Li W. Serum cholesterol concentration and coronary heart disease in population with low cholesterol concentrations. BMJ 1991; 303: 276-82.
Iso H. Changes in coronary heart disease risk among Japanese. Circulation 2008; 118: 2725-9.
Liu X, Mai J, Rao X, et al. Adverse trends of cardiovascular risk factors among low risk populations (1983-1994): a cohort study of workers and farmers in Guangzhou, China. BMC Public Health 2011; 11: 931.
Chaudhury M. Blood analytes. In: Health Survey for England 2003 Risk factors for cardiovascular disease. 2. Sproston K, Primatesta P (eds.). The Stationery Office, London 2004; 241-87.
Banach M, Wojtowicz E, Tomaszewski M, et al. P5306 The comparison of the lipid profile in the population of Poland between 2004, 2006 and 2015 based on the results of the LIPIDOGRAM cohort studies. Eur Heart J 2017; 38 (Suppl 1): ehx493.P5306-ehx493.
Robertson TL, Kato H, Gordon T, et al. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California. Coronary heart disease risk factors in Japan and Hawaii. Am J Cardiol 1977; 39: 244-9.
Patel JV, Vyas A, Cruickshank JK, et al. Impact of migration on coronary heart disease risk factors: comparison of Gujaratis in Britain and their contemporaries in villages of origin in India. Atherosclerosis 2006; 185: 297-306.
Cholesterol Treatment Trialists C, Kearney PM, Blackwell L, Collins R, et al. Efficacy of cholesterol-lowering therapy in 18,686 people with diabetes in 14 randomised trials of statins: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2008; 371: 117-25.
Cholesterol Treatment Trialists C, Baigent C, Blackwell L, Emberson J, et al. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet 2010; 376: 1670-81.
Miller M, Stone NJ, Ballantyne C, et al. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2011; 123: 2292-333.
Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 2009; 120: 1640-5.
Rubenfire M, Brook RD. HDL cholesterol and cardiovascular outcomes: what is the evidence? Curr Cardiol Rep 2013; 15: 349.
Jacobson TA, Ito MK, Maki KC, et al. National Lipid Association recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia: part 1 – executive summary. J Clin Lipidol 2014; 8: 473-88.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification. Clinical guideline [CG181]. London: NICE; 2014 (Updated Sep 2016). Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg181.
Blaha MJ, Blumenthal RS, Brinton EA, Jacobson TA, National Lipid Association Taskforce on Non HDLC. The importance of non-HDL cholesterol reporting in lipid management. J Clin Lipidol 2008; 2: 267-73.
Stephen AM, Sieber GM. Trends in individual fat consumption in the UK 1900-1985. Br J Nutr 1994; 71: 775-88.
Bansal N, Cruickshank JK, McElduff P, Durrington PN. Cord blood lipoproteins and prenatal influences. Curr Opin Lipidol 2005; 16: 400-8.
McGill HC Jr, McMahan CA, Herderick EE, Malcom GT, Tracy RE, Strong JP. Origin of atherosclerosis in childhood and adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72 (5 Suppl): 1307S-15S.
Rader DJ, Cohen J, Hobbs HH. Monogenic hypercholesterolemia: new insights in pathogenesis and treatment. J Clin Invest 2003; 111: 1795-803.
Elder SJ, Lichtenstein AH, Pittas AG, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on factors associated with cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. J Lipid Res 2009; 50: 1917-26.
Kotowski IK, Pertsemlidis A, Luke A, et al. A spectrum of PCSK9 alleles contributes to plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Hum Genet 2006; 78: 410-22.
Catapano AL, Graham I, De Backer G, et al. 2016 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias. Eur Heart J 2016; 37: 2999-3058.
Board JBS. Joint British Societies’ consensus recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (JBS3). Heart 2014; 100 Suppl 2: ii1-67.
Durrington P. Dyslipidaemia. Lancet 2003; 362: 717-31.
Brown MS, Hobbs HH, Goldstein JL. Familial hypercholesterolaemia. In: The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease (OMMBID). 8th ed. Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D (eds). McGraw-Hill; New York 2000; 2863-91.
Brunzell JD, Deeb SS. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency, apo C-II deficiency and hepatic lipase deficiency. In: The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inhertied Disease. 8th ed. Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D (eds). McGraw-Hill, New York 2000.
Rall SC Jr, Mahley RW. Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (dysbetalipoproteinemia): the role of apolipoprotein E in normal and abnormal lipoprotein metabolism. In: The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. 8th ed. Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D (eds). McGraw-Hill, New York 2000.
Asselbergs FW, Guo Y, van Iperen EP, et al. Large-scale gene-centric meta-analysis across 32 studies identifies multiple lipid loci. Am J Hum Genet 2012; 91: 823-38.
Talmud PJ, Shah S, Whittall R, et al. Use of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol gene score to distinguish patients with polygenic and monogenic familial hypercholesterolaemia: a case-control study. Lancet 2013; 381: 1293-301.
Ford ES, Li C, Sattar N. Metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes: current state of the evidence. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 1898-904.
Huang PL. A comprehensive definition for metabolic syndrome. Dis Model Mech 2009; 2: 231-7.
Soran H, Schofield JD, Adam S, Durrington PN. Diabetic dyslipidaemia. Curr Opin Lipidol 2016; 27: 313-22.
Schofield JD, Liu Y, Rao-Balakrishna P, Malik RA, Soran H. Diabetes dyslipidemia. Diabetes Ther 2016; 7: 203-19.
Brahm AJ, Hegele RA. Combined hyperlipidemia: familial but not (usually) monogenic. Curr Opin Lipidol 2016; 27: 131-40.
Poobalan A, Aucott L, Smith WC, et al. Effects of weight loss in overweight/obese individuals and long-term lipid outcomes: a systematic review. Obes Rev 2004; 5: 43-50.
Van Gaal LF, Mertens IL, Ballaux D. What is the relationship between risk factor reduction and degree of weight loss? Eur Heart J Suppl 2005; 7 (suppl L): L21-6.
James J, Thomas P, Cavan D, Kerr D. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2004; 328: 1237.
Clarke R, Frost C, Collins R, Appleby P, Peto R. Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. BMJ 1997; 314: 112-7.
Haq IU, Yeo WW, Jackson PR, Ramsay LE. The effects of dietary change on serum cholesterol. Proc Nutr Soc 1995; 54: 601-16.
Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvado J, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 1279-90.
Durrington PN, Bhatnagar D, Mackness MI, et al. An omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate administered for one year decreased triglycerides in simvastatin treated patients with coronary heart disease and persisting hypertriglyceridaemia. Heart 2001; 85: 544-8.
Authors/Task Force M, Catapano AL, Graham I, De Backer G, et al. 2016 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidaemias: The Task Force for the Management of Dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Developed with the special contribution of the European Assocciation for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Atherosclerosis 2016; 253: 281-344.
Cholesterol Treatment Trialists C, Mihaylova B, Emberson J, Blackwell L, et al. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease: meta-analysis of individual data from 27 randomised trials. Lancet 2012; 380: 581-90.
Taylor F, Huffman MD, Macedo AF, et al. Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 1: CD004816.
Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2014; 129 (25 Suppl. 2): S1-45.
Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Risk estimation and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. A clinical guideline 2007. Available at: http://www.sign.ac.uk/assets/sign149.pdf.
Neil HA, Mant D, Jones L, Morgan B, Mann JI. Lipid screening: is it enough to measure total cholesterol concentration? BMJ 1990; 301: 584-7.
Collins GS, Altman DG. Predicting the 10 year risk of cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom: independent and external validation of an updated version of QRISK2. BMJ 2012; 344: e4181.
Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Brindle P. Development and validation of QRISK3 risk prediction algorithms to estimate future risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2017; 357: j2099.
Goff DC Jr, Lloyd-Jones DM, Bennett G, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2014; 129 (25 Suppl. 2): S49-73.
Singh N, Kwok S, Seneviratne CJ, France M, Durrington P. The National Cholesterol Education Program III scoring system for CHD risk estimation cannot be used with European recommendations. Br J Cardiol 2004; 11: 282-6.
Manuel DG, Kwong K, Tanuseputro P, et al. Effectiveness and efficiency of different guidelines on statin treatment for preventing deaths from coronary heart disease: modelling study. BMJ 2006; 332: 1419.
Giugliano RP, Pedersen TR, Park JG, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of achieving very low LDL-cholesterol concentrations with the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab: a prespecified secondary analysis of the FOURIER trial. Lancet 2017; 390: 1962-71.
Hovingh GK, Boekholdt SM, Stroes ES. Very low LDL-cholesterol concentrations achieved: which target is next? Lancet 2017; 390: 1930-1.
Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, et al. Evolocumab and clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2017; 376: 1713-22.
Martin SS, Blaha MJ, Elshazly MB, et al. Comparison of a novel method vs the Friedewald equation for estimating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels from the standard lipid profile. JAMA 2013; 310: 2061-8.
Boekholdt SM, Arsenault BJ, Mora S, et al. Association of LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels with risk of cardiovascular events among patients treated with statins: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2012; 307: 1302-9.
Brunzell JD, Davidson M, Furberg CD, et al. Lipoprotein management in patients with cardiometabolic risk: consensus conference report from the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51: 1512-24.
Anderson TJ, Gregoire J, Hegele RA, et al. 2012 update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult. Can J Cardiol 2013; 29: 151-67.
Banach M, Jankowski P, Jozwiak J, et al. PoLA/CFPiP/PCS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias for family physicians 2016. Arch Med Sci 2017; 13: 1-45.
Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, Agewall S, et al. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts) Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur Heart J 2016; 37: 2315-81.
Baigent C, Keech A, Kearney PM, et al. Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins. Lancet 2005; 366: 1267-78.
Soran H, Kwok S, Adam S, Ho JH, Durrington PN. Evidence for more intensive cholesterol lowering. Curr Opin Lipidol 2017; 28: 291-9.
Soran H, Dent R, Durrington P. Evidence-based goals in LDL-C reduction. Clin Res Cardiol 2017; 106: 237-48.
Boekholdt SM, Hovingh GK, Mora S, et al. Very low levels of atherogenic lipoproteins and the risk for cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of statin trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014; 64: 485-94.
LaRosa JC, Grundy SM, Kastelein JJ, et al. Safety and efficacy of atorvastatin-induced very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with coronary heart disease (a post hoc analysis of the treating to new targets [TNT] study). Am J Cardiol 2007; 100: 747-52.
Hsia J, MacFadyen JG, Monyak J, Ridker PM. Cardiovascular event reduction and adverse events among subjects attaining low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 50 mg/dl with rosuvastatin. The JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin). J Am Coll Cardiol 2011; 57: 1666-75.
Wiviott SD, Cannon CP, Morrow DA, et al. Can low-density lipoprotein be too low? The safety and efficacy of achieving very low low-density lipoprotein with intensive statin therapy: a PROVE IT-TIMI 22 substudy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46: 1411-6.
Cannon CP, Blazing MA, Giugliano RP, et al. Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2015; 372: 2387-97.
Ray KK, Ginsberg HN, Davidson MH, et al. Reductions in atherogenic lipids and major cardiovascular events: a pooled analysis of 10 ODYSSEY trials comparing alirocumab with control. Circulation 2016; 134: 1931-43.
Silverman MG, Ference BA, Im K, et al. Association between lowering LDL-C and cardiovascular risk reduction among different therapeutic interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2016; 316: 1289-97.
Nicholls SJ, Puri R, Anderson T, et al. Effect of evolocumab on progression of coronary disease in statin-treated patients: the GLAGOV randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2016; 316: 2373-84.
Group HTRC, Bowman L, Hopewell JC, Chen F, et al. Effects of anacetrapib in patients with atherosclerotic vascular sisease. N Engl J Med 2017; 377: 1217-27.
Ridker PM, Revkin J, Amarenco P, et al. Cardiovascular efficacy and safety of bococizumab in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2017; 376: 1527-39.
Welty FK. Hypobetalipoproteinemia and abetalipoproteinemia. Curr Opin Lipidol 2014; 25: 161-8.
Everett BM, Mora S, Glynn RJ, MacFadyen J, Ridker PM. Safety profile of subjects treated to very low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (<30 mg/dl) with rosuvastatin 20 mg daily (from JUPITER). Am J Cardiol 2014; 114: 1682-9.
Giugliano RP, Mach F, Zavitz K, et al. Cognitive function in a randomized trial of evolocumab. N Engl J Med 2017; 377: 633-43.
Robinson JG, Rosenson RS, Farnier M, et al. Safety of very low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with alirocumab: pooled data from randomized trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 69: 471-82.
Benn M, Nordestgaard BG, Frikke-Schmidt R, Tybjaerg-Hansen A. Low LDL cholesterol, PCSK9 and HMGCR genetic variation, and risk of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease: Mendelian randomisation study. BMJ 2017; 357: j1648.
Soran H, Schofield JD, Durrington PN. Cholesterol, not just cardiovascular risk, is important in deciding who should receive statin treatment. Eur Heart J 2015; 36: 2975-83.
Soran H, Adam S, Durrington PN. Are recent statin recommendations to employ fixed doses and abandon targets effective for treatment of hypercholesterolaemia? Investigation based on number needed to treat. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2017; 24: 76-83.
Ursoniu S, Mikhailidis DP, Serban MC, et al. The effect of statins on cardiovascular outcomes by smoking status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacol Res 2017; 122: 105-17.
Clarke R, Shipley M, Lewington S, et al. Underestimation of risk associations due to regression dilution in long-term follow-up of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150: 341-53.
Emberson JR, Whincup PH, Morris RW, Walker M. Re-assessing the contribution of serum total cholesterol, blood pressure and cigarette smoking to the aetiology of coronary heart disease: impact of regression dilution bias. Eur Heart J 2003; 24: 1719-26.
Law MR, Wald NJ, Wu T, Hackshaw A, Bailey A. Systematic underestimation of association between serum cholesterol concentration and ischaemic heart disease in observational studies: data from the BUPA study. BMJ 1994; 308: 363-6.
Albert MA, Glynn RJ, Buring J, Ridker PM. Impact of traditional and novel risk factors on the relationship between socioeconomic status and incident cardiovascular events. Circulation 2006; 114: 2619-26.
Howard VJ, Kleindorfer DO, Judd SE, et al. Disparities in stroke incidence contributing to disparities in stroke mortality. Ann Neurol 2011; 69: 619-27.
Tunstall-Pedoe H. The Dundee coronary risk-disk for management of change in risk factors. BMJ 1991; 303: 744-7.
British Cardiac S, British Hypertension S, Diabetes UK, Heart UK, Primary Care Cardiovascular S, Stroke A.
JBS 2: Joint British Societies’ guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice. Heart 2005; 91 Suppl 5: v1-52.
Liew SM, Jackson R, Mant D, Glasziou P. Should identical CVD risks in young and old patients be managed identically? Results from two models. BMJ Open 2012; 2: e000728.
Wald NJ, Simmonds M, Morris JK. Screening for future cardiovascular disease using age alone compared with multiple risk factors and age. PLoS One 2011; 6: e18742.
Gemmell I, Heller RF, Payne K, Edwards R, Roland M, Durrington P. Potential population impact of the UK government strategy for reducing the burden of coronary heart disease in England: comparing primary and secondary prevention strategies. Qual Saf Health Care 2006; 15: 339-43.
Siontis GC, Tzoulaki I, Siontis KC, Ioannidis JP. Comparisons of established risk prediction models for cardiovascular disease: systematic review. BMJ 2012; 344: e3318.
Durrington PN. Hyperlipidaemia: diagnosis and management. 3rd ed. Hodder Arnold, London 2007; 399.
Soran H, Durrington P. Rosuvastatin: efficacy, safety and clinical effectiveness. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2008; 9: 2145-60.
Jones P, Kafonek S, Laurora I, Hunninghake D. Comparative dose efficacy study of atorvastatin versus simvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, and fluvastatin in patients with hypercholesterolemia (the CURVES study). Am J Cardiol 1998; 81: 582-7.
Hobbs FD, Banach M, Mikhailidis DP, Malhotra A, Capewell S. Is statin-modified reduction in lipids the most important preventive therapy for cardiovascular disease? A pro/con debate. BMC Med 2016; 14: 4.
Sahebkar A, Kotani K, Serban C, et al. Statin therapy reduces plasma endothelin-1 concentrations: a meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials. Atherosclerosis 2015; 241: 433-42.
Banach M, Serban C, Sahebkar A, et al. Impact of statin therapy on coronary plaque composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of virtual histology intravascular ultrasound studies. BMC Med 2015; 13: 229.
The Food and Drug Administration. Limit Use of 80 mg Simvastatin 2011. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/forconsumers/consumerupdates/ucm257884.htm.
Banach M, Rizzo M, Toth PP, et al. Statin intolerance – an attempt at a unified definition. Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel. Arch Med Sci 2015; 11: 1-23.
Rosenson RS, Baker S, Banach M, et al. Optimizing cholesterol treatment in patients with muscle complaints. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 70: 1290-301.
Armitage J. The safety of statins in clinical practice. Lancet 2007; 370: 1781-90.
Pandor A, Ara RM, Tumur I, et al. Ezetimibe monotherapy for cholesterol lowering in 2,722 people: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Intern Med 2009; 265: 568-80.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Ezetimibe for treating primary heterozygous-familial and non-familial hypercholesterolaemia 2007. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta385.
Sharp Collaborative G. Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP): randomized trial to assess the effects of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among 9,438 patients with chronic kidney disease. Am Heart J 2010; 160: 785-94 e10.
Serban MC, Banach M, Mikhailidis DP. Clinical implications of the IMPROVE-IT trial in the light of current and future lipid-lowering treatment options. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2016; 17: 369-80.
The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial results. I. Reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease. JAMA 1984; 251: 351-64.
Cicero AFG, Colletti A, Bajraktari G, et al. Lipid lowering nutraceuticals in clinical practice: position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel. Arch Med Sci 2017; 13: 965-1005.
Loomba RS, Arora R. Prevention of cardiovascular disease utilizing fibrates: a pooled meta-analysis. Am
J Ther 2010; 17: e182-8.
Lee M, Saver JL, Towfighi A, Chow J, Ovbiagele B. Efficacy of fibrates for cardiovascular risk reduction in persons with atherogenic dyslipidemia: a meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis 2011; 217: 492-8.
Lavigne PM, Karas RH. The current state of niacin in cardiovascular disease prevention: a systematic review and meta-regression. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 61: 440-6.
Group HTC, Landray MJ, Haynes R, et al. Effects of extended-release niacin with laropiprant in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2014; 371: 203-12.
Rizos EC, Ntzani EE, Bika E, Kostapanos MS, Elisaf MS. Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2012; 308: 1024-33.
Jaworski K, Jankowski P, Kosior DA. PCSK9 inhibitors – from discovery of a single mutation to a groundbreaking therapy of lipid disorders in one decade. Arch Med Sci 2017; 13: 914-29.
National Institute of Clinical Health and Excellence (NICE). Evolocumab for treating primary hypercholesterolaemia and mixed dyslipidaemia. Technical Appraisal Guidance [TA394]. London: NICE; 2016. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta394.
National Institute of Clinical Health and Excellence (NICE). Alirocumab for treating primary hypercholesterolaemia and mixed dyslipidaemia London: NICE; 2016. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta393.
Buchwald H, Varco RL, Matts JP, et al. Effect of partial ileal bypass surgery on mortality and morbidity from coronary heart disease in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Report of the Program on the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias (POSCH). N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 946-55.
Palacio CH, Harring TR, Nguyen NT, Goss JA, O’Mahony CA. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: case series and review of the literature. Case Rep Transplant 2011; 2011: 154908.
Carswell KA, Belgaumkar AP, Amiel SA, Patel AG. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of gastric bypass surgery on plasma lipid levels. Obes Surg 2016; 26: 843-55.
Yadav R, Hama S, Liu Y, et al. Effect of Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery on lipoproteins, insulin resistance, and systemic and vascular inflammation in obesity and diabetes. Front Immunol 2017; 8: 1512. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01512.
Kennedy-Dalby A, Adam S, Ammori BJ, Syed AA. Weight loss and metabolic outcomes of bariatric surgery in men versus women – a matched comparative observational cohort study. Eur J Intern Med 2014; 25: 922-5.
Aghamohammadzadeh R, Greenstein AS, Yadav R, et al. Effects of bariatric surgery on human small artery function: evidence for reduction in perivascular adipocyte inflammation, and the restoration of normal anticontractile activity despite persistent obesity. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 62: 128-35.
Yadav R, France M, Aghamohammadzadeh R, et al. Impairment of high-density lipoprotein resistance to lipid peroxidation and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity complicated by obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014; 99: 3390-8.
Millichamp KA, Cooper V, Syed AA. Immediate changes in continuous positive airway pressure after bariatric surgery in obese people with obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur J Intern Med 2014; 25: e33-4.
Buchwald H, Avidor Y, Braunwald E, et al. Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2004; 292: 1724-37.
Thompson GR, Catapano A, Saheb S, et al. Severe hypercholesterolaemia: therapeutic goals and eligibility criteria for LDL apheresis in Europe. Curr Opin Lipidol 2010; 21: 492-8.
Marais AD, Blom DJ. Recent advances in the treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. Curr Opin Lipidol 2013; 24: 288-94.
Moriarty PM, Parhofer KG, Babirak SP, et al. Alirocumab in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia undergoing lipoprotein apheresis: the ODYSSEY ESCAPE trial. Eur Heart J 2016; 37: 3588-95.
Watts GF, Stefanutti C. ODYSSEY ESCAPE: is PCSK9 inhibition the Trojan Horse for the use of lipoprotein apheresis in familial hypercholesterolaemia? Eur Heart J 2016; 37: 3596-9.
Stefanutti C, Julius U, Watts GF, et al. Toward an international consensus-integrating lipoprotein apheresis and new lipid-lowering drugs. J Clin Lipidol 2017; 11: 858-71e3.
France M, Rees A, Datta D, et al. HEART UK statement on the management of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in the United Kingdom. Atherosclerosis 2016; 255: 128-39.
Blom DJ, Averna MR, Meagher EA, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Circulation 2017; 136: 332-5.
McGowan MP, Tardif JC, Ceska R, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of mipomersen in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia receiving maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. PLoS One 2012; 7: e49006.
Di Bartolo BA, Schwarz N, Andrews J, Nicholls SJ. Infusional high-density lipoproteins therapies as a novel strategy for treating atherosclerosis. Arch Med Sci 2017; 13: 210-4.
Hovingh GK, Smits LP, Stefanutti C, et al. The effect of an apolipoprotein A-I-containing high-density lipoprotein-mimetic particle (CER-001) on carotid artery wall thickness in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: The Modifying Orphan Disease Evaluation (MODE) study. Am Heart J 2015; 169: 736-42e1.
Kataoka Y, Andrews J, Duong M, et al. Regression of coronary atherosclerosis with infusions of the high-density lipoprotein mimetic CER-001 in patients with more extensive plaque burden. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2017; 7: 252-63.
Van Craeyveld E, Jacobs F, Gordts SC, De Geest B. Gene therapy for familial hypercholesterolemia. Curr Pharm Des 2011; 17: 2575-91.
Nikolic D, Rizzo M, Mikhailidis DP, Wong NC, Banach M. An evaluation of RVX-208 for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2015; 24: 1389-98.
Di Bartolo BA, Scherer DJ, Nicholls SJ. Inducing apolipoprotein A-I synthesis to reduce cardiovascular risk: from ASSERT to SUSTAIN and beyond. Arch Med Sci 2016; 12: 1302-7.
Ray KK, Landmesser U, Leiter LA, et al. Inclisiran in patients at high cardiovascular risk with elevated LDL cholesterol. N Engl J Med 2017; 376: 1430-40.
Penson P, McGowan M, Banach M. Evaluating bempedoic acid for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2017; 26: 251-9.
FEATURED PRODUCTS
Quick links
© 2018 Termedia Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Developed by Bentus.
PayU - płatności internetowe