eISSN: 1896-9151
ISSN: 1734-1922
Archives of Medical Science
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vol. 16
Experimental research

Hypoxis hemerocallidea alters metabolic parameters and hepatic histomorphology in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic male rats under antiretroviral therapy

Ismail Olasile Onanuga
Ayoola Isaac Jegede
Ugochukwu Offor
Oluwatosin O. Ogedengbe
Edwin C.S. Naidu
Anetkan I. Peter
Onyemaechi Okpara Azu

Arch Med Sci 2020; 16 (1): 212–224
Online publish date: 2018/05/22
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HIV/AIDS have been demonstrated to induce endocrine/metabolic dysfunction with a consequential increase in morbidity/mortality due to organ toxicities. This study aimed at investigating the possible protective effect of Hypoxis hemerocallidea (HH) against metabolic and hepatic histomorphology of diabetic rats under HAART.

Material and methods
Sixty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a normoglycemic group A (n = 6) and 7 diabetic (110 mg/kg nicotinamide + 45 mg/kg streptozotocin) groups (B–H) (n = 8) and treated according to protocols. Concomitant treatment with adjuvant HH and HAART resulted in the least %body weight gain as the liver weight decreased in all treated animals.

Significant changes in serum lipids were aggravated by treatment with HH and HAART, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels were elevated (p < 0.001/0.05), but changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total protein levels were insignificant. While artherosclerotic and cardiopulmonary indexes remained insignificant, concomitant use of HH with HAART in diabetes resulted in reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (p < 0.001), and increased triglyceride (p < 0.05) and total cholesterol (p < 0.001). The parameters of liver injury showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in ALT of animals treated with HH alone, HAART + HH and melatonin; however, an insignificant decline in AST level was recorded. Treatment with adjuvant HAART, HH and melatonin resulted in significant (p < 0.005/0.0001) up-regulation of ALP and total bilirubin levels. Histopathology derangement ranged from severe hepatocellular distortions, necrosis with reduced glycogen expression following co-treatment of HAART+melatonin, HH and HAART alone in diabetes.

Presumptive hypoglycemic use of HH with HAART by people living with HIV/AIDS requires caution as implications for hepatocellular injuries are suspected with further uncontrolled metabolic disorder.


antiretroviral therapy, hepatic dysfunction, Hypoxis hemerocallidea, metabolic disorder, lipids

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