eISSN: 2084-9834
ISSN: 0034-6233
Reumatologia/Rheumatology
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4/2016
vol. 54
 
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abstract:
Review paper

Immunity and early atherosclerosis in the course of systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease and antiphospholipid syndrome

Ewa Haładyj
,
Agnieszka Paradowska-Gorycka
,
Anna Felis-Giemza
,
Marzena Olesińska

Reumatologia 2016; 54, 4: 187–195
Online publish date: 2016/10/05
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Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries associated with various risk factors that promote lipid abnormalities, development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions, plaque rupture, and vascular thrombosis. Atherosclerosis is accelerated in autoimmune diseases. Non-invasive investigations showed increased intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaque, and coronary artery calcifications in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease compared to controls. The balance between the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines allows the immune equilibrium to be maintained. In autoimmune diseases the prevalence of proinflammatory factors leads to premature atherosclerosis. This review presents complementary knowledge on innate and adaptive immunity, cytokines and the role of inflammasomes in progression of early atherosclerosis.
keywords:

atherosclerosis, interleukins, transforming growth factor β, interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, adipokines, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, toll-like receptors







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