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ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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vol. 43
Experimental immunology

Long actin-based cellular protrusions as novel evidence of the cytopathic effect induced in immune cells infected by the ectromelia virus

Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska, Karolina P. Gregorczyk-Zboroch, Justyna Struzik, Zbigniew Wyżewski, Agnieszka Ostrowska, Felix N. Toka, Małgorzata Gieryńska

(Centr Eur J Immunol 2018; 43 (4): 363-370)
Online publish date: 2018/12/31
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of ectromelia virus (ECTV) infection on actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy analysis we observed the presence of long actin-based cellular extensions, formed by both types of immune cells at later stages of infection with ECTV. Such extensions contained straight tubulin filaments and numerous punctuate mitochondria. Moreover, these long cellular projections extended to a certain length and formed convex structures termed “cytoplasmic packets”. These structures contained numerous viral particles and presumably were sites of progeny virions’ release via budding. Further, discrete mitochondria and separated tubulin filaments that formed a scaffold for accumulated mitochondria were visible within cytoplasmic packets. ECTV-induced long actin-based protrusions resemble “cytoplasmic corridors” and probably participate in virus dissemination. Our data demonstrate the incredible capacity for adaptation of ECTV to its natural host immune cells, in which it can survive, replicate and induce effective mechanisms for viral spread and dissemination.

ectromelia virus, cellular protrusions, macrophages, dendritic cells

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