eISSN: 1896-9151
ISSN: 1734-1922
Archives of Medical Science
Current issue Archive Manuscripts accepted About the journal Special issues Editorial board Abstracting and indexing Subscription Contact Instructions for authors
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
2/2018
vol. 14
 
Share:
Share:
more
 
 
abstract:
State of the art paper

Natural approaches in metabolic syndrome management

Angelo Maria Patti, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Dragana Nikolic, Carlo Mannina, Giuseppa Castellino, Roberta Chianetta, Maciej Banach, Arrigo FG Cicero, Giuseppe Lippi, Giuseppe Montalto, Manfredi Rizzo, Peter P. Toth

Arch Med Sci 2018; 14, 2: 422–441
Online publish date: 2017/07/19
View full text
Get citation
ENW
EndNote
BIB
JabRef, Mendeley
RIS
Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero
AMA
APA
Chicago
Harvard
MLA
Vancouver
 
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized as a group of cardiometabolic risk factors that raise the risk for heart disease and other health problems, such as diabetes mellitus and stroke. Treatment strategies include pharmacologic interventions and supplementary (or “alternative”) treatments. Nutraceuticals are derived from food sources (isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and herbal products) that are purported to provide health benefits, in addition to providing basic nutritional value. Nutraceuticals are claimed to prevent chronic diseases, improve health, delay the aging process, increase life expectancy, and support the structure and function of the body. The study of the beneficial effects of nutraceuticals in patients with MetS, including product standardization, duration of supplementation and definition of optimal dosing, could help better define appropriate treatment. This review focuses on widely marketed nutraceuticals (namely polyphenols, omega-3 fatty acids, macroelements and vitamins) with clinically demonstrated effects on more than one component of MetS.
keywords:

metabolic syndrome, vitamins, cardiovascular risk, macroelements, omega-3 fatty acids, polyphenols, nutraceuticals

references:
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285: 2486-97.
Mikhailidis DP, Elisaf M, Rizzo M, et al. “European panel on low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses”: a statement on the pathophysiology, atherogenicity and clinical significance of LDL subclasses: executive summary. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2011; 9: 531-2.
Mikhailidis DP, Elisaf M, Rizzo M, et al. “European panel on low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses”: a statement on the pathophysiology, atherogenicity and clinical significance of LDL subclasses. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2011; 9: 533-71.
Kassi E, Pervanidou P, Kaltsas G, et al. Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies. BMC Med 2011; 5: 9-48.
Rabe K, Lehrke M, Parhofer KG, et al. Adipokines and insulin resistance. Mol Med 2008; 14: 741-51.
Mansego ML, Redon J, Martinez-Hervas S, et al. Different impacts of cardiovascular risk factors on oxidative stress. Int J Mol Sci 2011; 12: 6146-63.
Stern MP, Williams K, González-Villalpando C, et al. Does the metabolic syndrome improve identification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease? Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 2676-81.
Kaur J. A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Res Pract 2014; 2014: 943162.
Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2009; 2: 270-8.
Alissa EM, Ferns GA. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. J Nutr Metab 2012; 2012: 569486.
Barrios V, Escobar C, Cicero AF, et al. A nutraceutical approach (Armolipid Plus) to reduce total and LDL cholesterol in individuals with mild to moderate dyslipidemia: review of the clinical evidence. Atheroscler Suppl 2017; 24: 1-15.
Ooi EM, Watts GF, Ng TW, et al. Effect of dietary fatty acids on human lipoprotein metabolism: a comprehensive update. Nutrients 2015; 7: 4416-25.
Sahebkar A, Serban MC, Gluba-Brzózka A, et al. Lipid-modifying effects of nutraceuticals: an evidence-based approach. Nutrition 2016; 32: 1179-92.
Abete I, Goyenechea E, Zulet MA, et al. Obesity and metabolic syndrome: potential benefit from specific nutritional components. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2011; 21 Suppl 2: B1-15.
Giglio RV, Patti AM, Nikolic D, et al. The effect of bergamot on dyslipidemia. Phytomedicine 2016; 23: 1175-81.
Rizzo M, Giglio RV, Nikolic D, et al. Effects of chitosan on plasma lipids and lipoproteins: a 4-month prospective pilot study. Angiology 2014; 65: 538-42.
Toth PP, Patti AM, Nikolic D, et al. Bergamot reduces plasma lipids, atherogenic small dense LDL, and subclinical atherosclerosis in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a 6 months prospective sudy. Front Pharmacol 2016; 6: 299.
Patti AM, Al-Rasadi K, Katsiki N, et al. Effect of a natural supplement containing curcuma longa, guggul, and chlorogenic acid in patients with metabolic syndrome. Angiology 2015; 66: 856-61.
Chacko SM, Thambi PT, Kuttan R, et al. Beneficial effects of green tea: a literature review. Chin Med 2010; 5: 13.
Serban C, Sahebkar A, Antal D, et al. Effects of supplementation with green tea catechins on plasma C-reactive protein concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrition 2015; 31: 1061-71.
Basu A, Sanchez K, Leyva MJ, et al. Green tea supplementation affects body weight, lipids, and lipid peroxidation in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr 2010; 29: 31-40.
Mousavi A, Vafa M, Neyestani T, et al. The effects of green tea consumption on metabolic and anthropometric indices in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Res Med Sci 2013; 18: 1080-6.
Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 2002; 56: 365-79.
Poudyal H, Panchal SK, Diwan V, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and metabolic syndrome: effects and emerging mechanisms of action. Prog Lipid Res 2011; 50: 372-87.
Du S, Jin J, Fang W, et al. Does fish oil have an anti-obesity effect in overweight/obese adults? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0142652.
Jurgoński A, Juśkiewicz J, Zduńczyk Z. Ingestion of black chokeberry fruit extract leads to intestinal and systemic changes in a rat model of prediabetes and hyperlipidemia. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2008; 63: 176-82.
Kowalczyk E, Fijałkowski P, Kura M, et al. The influence of anthocyanins from Aronia melanocarpa on selected parameters of oxidative stress and microelements contents in men with hypercholesterolemia. Pol Merkur Lekarski 2005; 19: 651-3.
Christenson J, Whitby SJ, Mellor D, et al. The effects of resveratrol supplementation in overweight and obese humans: a systematic review of randomized trials. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2016; 14: 323-33.
Dinca M, Serban MC, Sahebkar A, et al.; Lipid Blood Pressure Meta-analysis Collaboration LBPMC Group. Does vitamin D supplementation alter plasma adipokines concentrations? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacol Res 2016; 107: 360-71.
Nimitphong H, Samittarucksa R, Saetung S, et al. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic phenotypes in Thais with prediabetes. J Med Assoc Thai 2015; 98: 1169-78.
Di Pierro F, Bressan A, Ranaldi D, et al. Potential role of bioavailable curcumin in weight loss and omental adipose tissue decrease: preliminary data of a randomized, controlled trial in overweight people with metabolic syndrome. Preliminary study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015; 19: 4195-202.
Langley P. Why a pomegranate? BMJ 2000; 321: 1153-4.
Ben Nasr C, Ayed N, Metche M. Quantitative determination of the polyphenolic content of pomegranate peel. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 1996; 203: 374-8.
Gil MI, Tomás-Barberán FA, Hess-Pierce B, et al. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. J Agric Food Chem 2000; 48: 4581-9.
Stowe CB. The effects of pomegranate juice consumption on blood pressure and cardiovascular health. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2011; 17: 113-5.
Aviram M, Dornfeld L. Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure. Atherosclerosis 2001; 158: 195-8.
Galley HF, Thornton J, Howdle PD, et al. Combination oral antioxidant supplementation reduces blood pressure. Clin Sci (Lond) 1997; 92: 361-5.
Bogdanski P, Suliburska J, Szulinska M, et al. Green tea extract reduces blood pressure, inflammatory biomarkers, and oxidative stress and improves parameters associated with insulin resistance in obese, hypertensive patients. Nutr Res 2012; 32: 421-7.
Mikaili P, Maadirad S, Moloudizargari M, et al. Therapeutic uses and pharmacological properties of garlic, shallot, and their biologically active compounds. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2013; 16: 1031-48.
Sahebkar A, Serban C, Ursoniu S, et al. Effect of garlic on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: a systematic review and meta analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Nutrition 2016; 32: 33-40.
Ried K, Fakler P. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance. Integr Blood Press Control 2014; 7: 71-82.
Gómez-Arbeláez D, Lahera V, Oubiña P, et al. Aged garlic extract improves adiponectin levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study. Mediators Inflamm 2013; 2013: 285795.
Bayan L, Koulivand PH, Gorji A. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects. Avicenna J Phytomed 2014; 4: 1-14.
Houston M. The role of nutrition and nutraceutical supplements in the treatment of hypertension. World
J Cardiol 2014; 6: 38-66.
Zanetti M, Grillo A, Losurdo P, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: structural and functional effects on the vascular wall. Biomed Res Int 2015; 2015: 791978.
Kleemann R, Verschuren L, Morrison M, et al. Anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-atherosclerotic effects of quercetin in human in vitro and in vivo models. Atherosclerosis 2011; 218: 44-52.
Serban MC, Sahebkar A, Zanchetti A, et al. Lipid and Blood Pressure Meta-analysis Collaboration (LBPMC) Group. Effects of quercetin on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Heart Assoc 2016; 5: e002713.
Elliott P, Kesteloot H, Appel LJ, et al.; INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group. Dietary phosphorus and blood pressure: international study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension 2008; 51: 669-75.
Rebello CJ, Burton J, Heiman M, et al. Gastrointestinal microbiome modulator improves glucose tolerance in overweight and obese subjects: a randomized controlled pilot trial. J Diabetes Complications 2015; 29: 1272-6.
Broncel M, Koziróg-Kołacińska M, Andryskowski G, et al. Effect of anthocyanins from Aronia melanocarpa on blood pressure, concentration of endothelin-1 and lipids in patients with metabolic syndrome. Pol Merkur Lekarski 2007; 23: 116-9.
Sicińska P, Pytel E, Maćczak A, et al. The use of various diet supplements in metabolic syndrome. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 2015; 69: 25-33.
Kojima Y, Kimura T, Nakagawa K, et al. Effects of mulberry leaf extract rich in 1-deoxynojirimycin on blood lipid profiles in humans. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2010; 47: 155-61.
Scichilone N, Rizzo M, Benfante A, et al. Serum low density lipoprotein subclasses in asthma. Respir Med 2013; 107: 1866-72.
Berneis K, Rizzo M, Berthold HK, et al. Ezetimibe alone or in combination with simvastatin increases small dense low-density lipoproteins in healthy men: a randomized trial. Eur Heart J 2010; 31: 1633-9.
Wang A, Wang CZ, Wu JA, et al. Determination of major ginsenosides in Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytochem Anal 2005; 16: 272-7.
Yin J, Zhang H, Ye J. Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of metabolic syndrome. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2008; 8: 99-111.
Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1995; 18: 1373-5.
Qureshi AA, Abuirmeileh N, Din ZZ, et al. Suppression of cholesterogenesis and reduction of LDL cholesterol by dietary ginseng and its fractions in chicken liver. Atherosclerosis 1983; 48: 81-94.
Post SM, Groenendijk M, van der Hoogt CC, et al. Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase deficiency in mice on an APOE*3-Leiden background increases hepatic ABCA1 mRNA expression and HDL-cholesterol. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006; 26: 2724-30.
Waki I, Kyo H, Yasuda M, et al. Effects of a hypoglycemic component of ginseng radix on insulin biosynthesis in normal and diabetic animals. J Pharmacobiodyn 1982; 5: 547-54.
Lee WK, Kao ST, Liu IM, et al. Increase of insulin secretion by ginsenoside Rh2 to lower plasma glucose in Wistar rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006; 33: 27-32.
Su CF, Cheng JT, Liu IM. Increase of acetylcholine release by Panax ginseng root enhances insulin secretion in Wistar rats. Neurosci Lett 2007; 412: 101-4.
Luo JZ, Luo L. American ginseng stimulates insulin production and prevents apoptosis through regulation of uncoupling protein-2 in cultured beta cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2006; 3: 365-72.
Hasegawa H, Matsumiya S, Murakami C, et al. Interactions of ginseng extract, ginseng separated fractions, and some triterpenoid saponins with glucose transporters in sheep erythrocytes. Planta Med 1994; 60: 153-7.
Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, et al. Saturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease: modulation by replacement nutrients. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2010; 12: 384-90.
Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Kastelein JJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in statin-treated patients with persistent high triglycerides (from the ANCHOR study). Am J Cardiol 2012; 110: 984-92.
No authors listed. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico. Lancet 1999; 354: 447-55.
Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 2007; 369: 1090-8.
Clinicaltrials.gov. A Study of AMR101 to Evaluate Its Ability to Reduce Cardiovascular Events in High Risk Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia and on Statin. The Primary Objective is to Evaluate the Effect of 4 g/Day AMR101 for Preventing the Occurrence of a First Major Cardiovascular Event. (REDUCE-IT) Clinicaltrials.gov; 2014. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01492361.
Clinicaltrials.gov. Outcomes Study to Assess Statin Residual Risk Reduction with Epanova in High CV Risk Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia (STRENGTH) 2015. Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02104817.
Toth PP. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as a causal factor for cardiovascular disease. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2016; 12: 171-83.
Walz CP, Barry AR, Koshman SL. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Can Pharm J 2016; 149: 166-73.
Kwak SM, Myung SK, Lee YJ, et al. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2012; 172: 686-94.
Rizos EC, Ntzani EE, Bika E, et al. Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2012; 308: 1024-33.
Pryor WA. Vitamin E and heart disease: basic science to clinical intervention trials. Free Radic Biol Med 2000; 28: 141-64.
Yusuf S, Dagenais G, Pogue J, et al. Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 154-60.
Sesso HD, Buring JE, Christen WG, et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008; 300: 2123-33.
Goel H, Dunbar RL. Niacin alternatives for dyslipidemia: fool’s gold or gold mine? Part II: novel niacin mimetics. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2016; 18: 17.
Morgan JM, Capuzzi DM, Guyton JR. A new extended-release niacin (Niaspan): efficacy, tolerability, and safety in hypercholesterolemic patients. Am J Cardiol 1998; 82: 29U-34U; discussion 39U-41U.
Goldberg A, Alagona P Jr, Capuzzi DM, et al. Multiple-dose efficacy and safety of an extended-release form of niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. Am J Cardiol 2000; 85: 1100-5.
Goldberg AC. Clinical trial experience with extended-release niacin (Niaspan): dose-escalation study. Am J Cardiol 1998; 82: 35U-8U; discussion 39U-41U.
The AIM-HIGH Investigators. Niacin in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels receiving intensive statin therapy. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 2255-67.
HPS2-THRIVE Collaborative Group. Landray MJ, Haynes R, Hopewell JC, et al. Effects of extended-release niacin with laropiprant in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2014; 371: 203-12.
Liu ZM, Ho SC, Chen YM, et al. Whole soy, but not purified daidzein, had a favorable effect on improvement of cardiovascular risks: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial in equol-producing postmenopausal women. Mol Nutr Food Res 2014; 58: 709-17.
Li S, Na L, Li Y, et al. Long-term calcium supplementation may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2013; 98: 1353-9.
Fumeron F, Lamri A, Abi Khalil C, et al. Dairy consumption and the incidence of hyperglycemia and the metabolic syndrome: results from a French prospective study. Data from the Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR). Diabetes Care 2011; 34: 813-7.
Stancliffe RA, Thorpe T, Zemel MB. Dairy attenuates oxidative and inflammatory stress in metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 94: 422-30.
Zemel MB, Sun X. Dietary calcium and dairy products modulate oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice and humans. J Nutr 2008; 138: 1047-52.
Rosenblat M, Hayek T, Aviram M. Anti-oxidative effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption by diabetic patients on serum and on macrophages. Atherosclerosis 2006; 187: 363-71.
Partida-Hernández G, Arreola F, Fenton B, et al. Effect of zinc replacement on lipids and lipoproteins in type 2 diabetic patients. Biomed Pharmacother 2006; 60: 161-8.
Guerrero-Romero F, Rodríguez-Morán M. Hypomagnesemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2006; 22: 471-6.
Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, et al. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev 2010; 4: 118-26.
Pham-Huy LA, He H, Pham-Huy C. Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int J Biomed Sci 2008; 4: 89-96.
Romieu I, Garcia-Esteban R, Sunyer J, et al. The effect of supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on markers of oxidative stress in elderly exposed to PM(2.5). Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116:
1237-42.
Tayyebi-Khosroshahi H, Houshyar J, Tabrizi A, et al. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid on oxidative stress in patients on hemodialysis. Iran J Kidney Dis 2010; 4: 322-6.
Rahman K. Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors. Clin Interv Aging 2007; 2: 219-36.
Naziroğlu M, Butterworth PJ. Protective effects of moderate exercise with dietary vitamin C and E on blood antioxidative defense mechanism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Can J Appl Physiol 2005; 30: 172-85.
Frishman WH. Nutriceuticals as treatments for cardiovascular disease. Heart Dis 1999; 1: 51.
Mikirova NA, Ichim TE, Riordan NH. Anti-angiogenic effect of high doses of ascorbic acid. J Transl Med 2008; 6: 50.
Vasan RS. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: molecular basis and practical considerations. Circulation 2006; 113: 2335-62.
Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A, et al. Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Lancet 2001; 357: 657-63.
Willcox BJ, Curb JD, Rodriguez BL. Antioxidants in cardiovascular health and disease: key lessons from epidemiologic studies. Am J Cardiol 2008; 101: 75D-86D.
Johnston CS, Meyer CG, Srilakshmi JC. Vitamin C elevates red blood cell glutathione in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 58: 103-5.
Knapen MH, Braam LA, Drummen NE, et al. Menaquinone-7 supplementation improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women. A double-blind randomised clinical trial. Thromb Haemost 2015; 113: 1135-44.
Huang T, Yang B, Zheng J, et al. Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Ann Nutr Metab 2012; 60: 233-40.
Hermes O, Schlage P, auf dem Keller U. Wound degradomics – current status and future perspectives. Biol Chem 2011; 392: 949-54.
Furenes EB, Seljeflot I, Solheim S, et al. Long-term influence of diet and/or omega-3 fatty acids on matrix metalloproteinase-9 and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in men at high risk of coronary heart disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2008; 68: 177-84.
Wang Q, Han P, Zhang M, et al. Supplementation of black rice pigment fraction improves antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status in patients with coronary heart disease. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2007; 16 Suppl 1: 295-301.
O’Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, et al. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 14-22.
Mancia G, De Backer G, Dominiczak A, et al. The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2007; 28: 1462-536.
Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K, et al. European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR). European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive summary. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2007; 14: 1-40.
Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D, et al. Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation. Clin Nutr 2004; 23: 423-33.
Frishman WH, Del Vecchio A, Sanal S, et al. Cardiovascular manifestations of subtance abuse: part 2: alcohol, amphetamines, heroin, cannabis, and caffeine. Heart Dis 2003; 5: 253-71.
Sahebkar A, Serban C, Ursoniu S, et al. Lipid and Blood Pressure Meta-analysis Collaboration Group. Lack of efficacy of resveratrol on C-reactive protein and selected cardiovascular risk factors. Results from a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Cardiol 2015; 189: 47-55.
Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Hollman PC, et al. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 1993; 342: 1007-11.
Duffy SJ, Keaney JF Jr, Holbrook M, et al. Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 2001; 104: 151-6.
Kwok T, Chook P, Tam L, et al. Vascular dysfunction in Chinese vegetarians: an apparent paradox? J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46: 1957-8.
van Dijk SC, Enneman AW, Swart KM, et al. Effects of 2-year vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation in hyperhomocysteinemic elderly on arterial stiffness and cardiovascular outcomes within the B-PROOF trial. J Hypertens 2015; 33: 1897-906.
Tong TY, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT, et al. Prospective association of the Mediterranean diet with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality and its population impact in a non-Mediterranean population: the EPIC-Norfolk study. BMC Med 2016; 14: 135.
Study of the Effectiveness of Additional Reductions in Cholesterol and Homocysteine (SEARCH) Collaborative Group. Intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol with 80 mg versus 20 mg simvastatin daily in 12,064 survivors of myocardial infarction: a double-blind randomised trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 1658-69.
Kwok T, Chook P, Qiao M, et al. Vitamin B-12 supplementation improves arterial function in vegetarians with subnormal vitamin B-12 status. J Nutr Health Aging 2012; 16: 569-73.
Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Dustin L, et al.; BVAIT Research Group. High-dose B vitamin supplementation and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial. Stroke 2009; 40: 730-6.
Somjen D, Weisman Y, Kohen F, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase is expressed in human vascular smooth muscle cells and is upregulated by parathyroid hormone and estrogenic compounds. Circulation 2005; 111: 1666-71.
Holick MF. High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin Proc 2006; 81: 353-73.
Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2008; 117: 503-11.
Kopecky SL, Bauer DC, Gulati M, et al. Lack of evidence linking calcium with or without vitamin D supplementation to cardiovascular disease in generally healthy adults: a clinical guideline from the National Osteoporosis Foundation and the American Society for Preventive Cardiology. Ann Intern Med 2016; 165: 867-8.
Thiele I, Linseisen J, Meisinger C, et al. Associations between calcium and vitamin D supplement use as well as their serum concentrations and subclinical cardiovascular disease phenotypes. Atherosclerosis 2015; 241: 743-51.
Belcaro G, Dugall M, Hosoi M, et al. Pycnogenol® and Centella Asiatica for asymptomatic atherosclerosis progression. Int Angiol 2014; 33: 20-6.
Lee HH, Kim KJ, Lee OH, et al. Effect of pycnogenol on glucose transport in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother Res 2010; 24: 1242-9.
Zou ZY, Xu XR, Lin XM, et al. Effects of lutein and lycopene on carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr 2014; 111: 474-80.
Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Kono N, et al.; Women’s Isoflavone Soy Health Research Group. Isoflavone soy protein supplementation and atherosclerosis progression in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Stroke 2011; 42: 3168-75.
Murie-Fernandez M, Irimia P, Toledo E, et al. PREDIMED Investigators. Carotid intima-media thickness changes with Mediterranean diet: a randomized trial (PREDIMED-Navarra). Atherosclerosis 2011; 219: 158-62.
Hjerkinn EM, Abdelnoor M, Breivik L, et al. Effect of diet or very long chain omega-3 fatty acids on progression of atherosclerosis, evaluated by carotid plaques, intima-media thickness and by pulse wave propagation in elderly men with hypercholesterolaemia. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2006; 13: 325-33.
Serban MC, Colantonio LD, Manthripragada AD, et al. Statin intolerance and risk of coronary heart events and all-cause mortality following. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 69: 1386-95.
Banach M, Rizzo M, Toth PP, et al. Statin intolerance – an attempt at a unified definition. Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel. Arch Med Sci 2015; 11: 1-23.
Serban MC, Sahebkar A, Mikhailidis DP, et al. Impact of L-carnitine on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sci Rep 2016; 6: 19188.
Cicero AF, Tartagni E, Ertek S. Nutraceuticals for metabolic syndrome management: from laboratory to benchside. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2014; 12: 565-71.
Serban MC, Sahebkar A, Dragan S, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations. Clin Nutr 2016; 35: 842-51.
Serban C, Sahebkar A, Ursoniu S, et al. Effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on arterial hypertension: a systematic review. J Hypertens 2015; 33: 1119-27.
Ursoniu S, Sahebkar A, Andrica F, et al. Lipid and Blood Pressure Meta-analysis Collaboration (LBPMC) Group. Effects of flaxseed supplements on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trial. Clin Nutr 2016; 35: 615-2.
Ursoniu S, Sahebkar A, Serban MC, et al. Lipid profile and glucose changes after supplementation with astaxanthin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Med Sci 2015; 11: 253-66.
FEATURED PRODUCTS
Quick links
© 2018 Termedia Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Developed by Bentus.
PayU - płatności internetowe