eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
1/2022
vol. 47
 
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abstract:
Review paper

Novel approach to antiangiogenic factors in age-related macular degeneration therapy

Katarzyna Samelska
1, 2
,
Magdalena Kupis
1, 2
,
Justyna Izdebska
1, 2
,
Anna Kaminska
1, 2
,
Piotr Skopiński
2, 3

1.
Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
2.
SPKSO Ophthalmic University Hospital, Warsaw, Poland
3.
Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Cent Eur J Immunol 2022; 47 (1): 117-123
Online publish date: 2022/02/04
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss among the population above 85 worldwide. There are two main types of AMD: neovascular and dry AMD. Neovascular AMD leads to macular changes resulting from abnormal choroidal neovascularization. Untreated neovascular AMD leads to scar formation and irreversible sight deterioration. Dry AMD in consequence leads to atrophic changes of the macula.

The last decades brought a breakthrough in the therapy of neovascular age-related macular degeneration by introduction of, firstly, photodynamic therapy and, later, anti-VEGF agents administered intravitreally in order to stop neoangiogenesis. However, the treatment of dry AMD is still challenging. Among the directions in dry AMD treatment, the most promising are complement cascade inhibitors and complement cascade targeted gene therapy.

In the article we outline the main directions in up-to-date experimental and practical approaches to wet and dry AMD therapy with the emphasis on antiangiogenic factors and gene therapy focused on the inhibition of pathological angiogenesis.
keywords:

age-related macular degeneration, axitinib, AMD, eculizumab, gene therapy, brolu-cizumab, abicipar pegol, faricimab, lampalizumab, pegcetacoplan

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