eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
3/2022
vol. 47
 
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abstract:
Case report

Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy – a rare cause of pain and arthritis in children. Description of 5 cases

Joanna Wójtowicz
1
,
Beata Kołodziejczyk
1
,
Agnieszka Gazda
1
,
Piotr Gietka
1

1.
Paediatric Rheumatology Department, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland
Cent Eur J Immunol 2022; 47 (3): 280-287
Online publish date: 2022/11/16
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Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHOA) is a very rare disease. The typical triad of symptoms, i.e. digital clubbing, periosteal bone formation with bone and joint deformities and skin hypertrophy, may be accompanied by other specific conditions. In the majority of patients, the picture of the disease is incomplete. The dominant clinical symptom may be osteoarticular complaints. Moreover, the final confirmation of the diagnosis of the primary form of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy requires the analysis of much more frequent secondary causes of the disease.

Diagnosing primary osteoarthropathy in children is particularly difficult. Some children report joint pain before the onset of the other symptoms of osteoarthropathy, while the physical and imaging examinations show features of arthritis. This can lead to misdiagnoses including the diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and the unnecessary use of immunosuppressive treatment.

The present description of five patients from the Paediatric Rheumatology Department indicates diagnostic difficulties in children with PHOA. All of them were examined due to pain and features of arthritis. We observed an incomplete clinical picture of the disease. One patient required a revision of the previous diagnosis of JIA and discontinuation of ineffective treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).

PHOA should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of arthritis in children, due to the slow and often atypical development of symptoms, including the presence of pain and arthritis as the predominant symptom of the disease.
keywords:

juvenile idiopathic arthritis, arthritis, joint pain, periostosis, arthritis in children, osteoarthropathy, digital clubbing, secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, juvenile idiopathic arthritis differential diagnosis

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