eISSN: 1896-9151
ISSN: 1734-1922
Archives of Medical Science
Current issue Archive Manuscripts accepted About the journal Special issues Editorial board Abstracting and indexing Subscription Contact Instructions for authors
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
2/2018
vol. 14
 
Share:
Share:
more
 
 
abstract:
State of the art paper

Prophylaxis of medial compartment gonarthrosis in varus knee – current state of knowledge

Anna Fryzowicz, Lechosław B. Dworak, Paweł Koczewski

Arch Med Sci 2018; 14, 2: 454–459
Online publish date: 2016/03/29
View full text
Get citation
ENW
EndNote
BIB
JabRef, Mendeley
RIS
Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero
AMA
APA
Chicago
Harvard
MLA
Vancouver
 
The progression of gonarthrosis results in reduction of physical activity. One of the factors that increase the risk of osteoarthrosis may be joint overload related to the malalignment of the mechanical axis of the lower extremity. The medial compartment (MC) of the knee is particularly susceptible to overload due to the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). Varus knee malalignment contributes to increased EKAM and thus results in increased MC loading. The purpose of this study is to present methods described in current literature aimed at reducing the disproportion in the distribution of loads on articular surfaces of medial and lateral knee compartments in people with varus knee malalignment. Methods have been divided into non-surgical (gait training, physiotherapy, and orthopedic supplies such as valgus braces, lateral wedge insoles, walking poles) and surgical ones (corrective osteotomy).
keywords:

osteoarthrosis, osteotomy, prevention, insoles, physiotherapy

references:
Wierusz-Kozłowska M, Markuszewski J. Choroba zwyrodnieniowa stawów. In: Wiktora Degi ortopedia i rehabilitacja. Vol. 2. Marciniak W, Szulc A (eds.). PZWL, Warsaw 2003; 274-89.
Johnson F, Leitl S, Waugh W. The distribution of load across the knee. A comparison of static and dynamic measurements. J Bone Joint Surg 1980; 62-B: 346-9.
Andriacchi TP. Dynamics of knee malalignment. Orthop Clin North Am 1994; 25: 395-403.
Hunt MA, Birmingham TB, Giffin J R, Jenkyn TR. Associations among knee adduction moment, frontal plane ground reaction force, and lever arm during walking in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Biomech 2006; 39: 2213-20.
Kutzner I, Trepczynski A, Heller MO, Bergmann G. Knee adduction moment and medial contact force – facts about their correlation during gait. Plos One 2013; 8: e81036.
Meyer AJ, D’Lima DD, Besier TF, Lloyd DG, Colwell Jr. CW, Fregly BJ. Are external knee load and EMG measures accurate indicators of internal knee contact forces during gait? J Orthop Res 2013; 31: 921-9.
Zhao D, Banks SA, Mitchell KH, D’Lima DD, Colwell Jr. CW, Fregly BJ. Correlation between the knee adduction torque and medial contact force for a variety of gait patterns. J Orthop Res 2007; 25: 789-97.
Walter JP, D’Lima DD, Colwell Jr CW, Fregly BJ. Decreased knee adduction moment does not guarantee decreased medial contact force during gait. J Orthop Res 2010; 28: 1348-54.
Foroughi N, Smith RM, Lange AK, Baker MK, Singh MAF, Vanwanseele B. Dynamic alignment and its association with knee adduction moment in medial knee osteoarthritis. Knee 2010; 17: 210-6.
Mündermann A, Dyrby CO, Andriacchi TP. A comparison of measuring mechanical axis alignment using three-dimensional position capture with skin markers and radiographic measurements in patients with bilateral medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Knee 2008; 15: 480-5.
Brouwer GM, van Tol AW, Bergink AP, et al. Association between valgus and varus alignment and the development and progression of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56: 1204-11.
Sharma L, Chmiel JS, Almagor O, et al. The role of varus and valgus alignment in the initial development of knee cartilage damage by MRI: the MOST study. Ann Rheum Dis 2013; 72: 235-40.
Eckstein F, Wirth W, Hudelmaier M, et al. Patterns of femorotibial cartilage loss in knees with neutral, varus, and valgus alignment. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 59: 1563-70.
Miyazaki T, Wada M, Kawahara H, Sato M, Baba H, Shimada S. Dynamic load at baseline can predict radiographic disease progression in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2002; 61: 617-22.
Chang AH, Moisio KC, Chmiel JS, et al. External knee adduction moment and flexion moments during gait and medial tibiofemoral disease progression in knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cartilage 2015; 23: 1099-106.
Gerbrands TA, Pisters MF, Vanwanseele B. Individual selection of gait retraining strategies is essential to optimally reduce medial knee load during gait. Clin Biomech 2014; 29: 828-34.
Simic M, Hunt MA, Bennell KL, Hinman RS, Wrigley TV. Trunk lean gait modification and knee joint load in people with medial knee osteoarthritis: the effect of varying trunk lean angles. Arthrit Care Res 2012; 64: 1545-53.
Simic M, Wrigley TV, Hinman RS, Hunt MA, Bennell KL. Altering foot progression angle in people with medial knee osteoarthritis: the effect of varying toe-in and toe-out angles are mediated by pain and malalignment. Osteoarthr Cartilage 2013; 21: 1272-80.
Jenkyn TR, Hunt MA, Jones IC, Giffin JR, Birmingham TB. Toe-out gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis partially transforms external knee adduction moment into flexion moment during early stance phase of gait: a tri-planar kinetic mechanism. J Biomech 2008; 4: 276-83.
Chang A, Hurwitz D, Dunlop D, et al. The relationship between toe-out angle during gait and progression of medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66: 1271-5.
Shull PB, Shultz R, Silder A, et al. Toe-in gait reduces the first peak knee adduction moment in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. J Biomech 2013; 46: 122-8.
Chang A, Hayes K, Dunlop D, et al. Hip abduction moment and protection against medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis progression. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 3515-9.
Hunt MA, Birmingham TB, Bryant D, et al. Lateral trunk lean explains variation in dynamic knee joint load in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cartilage 2008; 16: 591-9.
Fregly BJ, D’Lima DD, Colwell Jr CW. Effective gait patterns for offloading the medial compartment of the knee. J Orthop Res 2009; 27: 1016-21.
Crenshaw SJ, Pollo FE, Calton EF. Effects of lateral-wedged insoles on kinetics at the knee. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2000; 375: 185-92.
Haim A, Rozen N, Dekel S, Halperin N, Wolf A. Control of knee coronal plane moment via modulation of center of pressure: a prospective gait analysis study. J Biomech 2008; 41: 3010-6.
Kakihana W, Akai M, Nakazawa K, Takashima T, Naito K, Torii S. Effects of laterally wedged insoles on knee and subtalar joint moments. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 86: 1465-71.
Nakajima K, Kakihana W, Nakagawa T, et al. Addition of an arch support improves the biomechanical effect of a laterally wedged insole. J Biomech 2009; 29: 208-13.
Creaby MW, May K, Bennell KL. Insole effects on impact loading during walking. Ergonomics 2011; 54: 665-71.
Hinman RS, Bowles KA, Bennell KL. Laterally wedged insoles in knee osteoarthritis: do biomechanical effects decline after one month of wear? BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009; 10: 146.
Bennell KL, Bowles KA, Payne C, et al. Lateral wedge insoles for medial knee osteoarthritis: 12 month randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2011; 342: d2912.
Levinger P, Menz HB, Morrow AD, Feller JA, Bartlett JR, Bergman NR. Foot kinematics in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2012; 51: 2191-8.
Maly MR, Culham EG, Costigan PA. Static and dynamic biomechanics of foot orthoses in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Clin Biomech 2002; 17: 603-10.
Minzlaff P, Saier T, Brucker PU, Haller B, Imhoff AB, Hinterwimmer S. Valgus bracing in symptomatic varus malalignment for testing the expectable “unloading effect” following valgus high tibial osteotomy. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2015; 23: 1964-70.
Pagani CHF, Hinrichs M, Brüggemann G. Kinetic and kinematic changes with the use of valgus knee brace and lateral wedge insoles in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis. J Orthop Res 2011; 30: 1125-32.
Brouwer RW, van Raaij TM, Verhaar JA, Coene LN, Bierma-Zeinstra SM. Brace treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective randomized multi-centre trial. Osteoarthr Cartilage 2006; 14: 777-83.
Bechard DJ, Birmingham TB, Zecevic AA, et al. The effect of walking poles on the knee adduction moment in patients with varus gonarthrosis. Osteoarthr Cartilage 2012; 20: 1500-6.
Destieux C, Gaudreault N, Isner-Horobeti ME, Vautravers P. Use of postural reconstruction® physiotherapy to treat an adolescent with asymmetric bilateral genu varum and idiopathic scoliosis. Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2013; 56: 312-26.
Paley D, Maar DC, Herzenberg JE. New concepts in high tibial osteotomy for medial compartment osteoarthritis. Orthop Clin North Am 1994; 25: 483-98.
Birmingham TB, Giffin JR, Chesworth BM, et al. Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: a prospective cohort study of gait, radiographic, and patient-reported outcomes. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 61: 648-57.
Ramsey DK, Snyder-Mackler L, Lewek M, Newcomb W, Rudolph KS. Effect of anatomic realignment on muscle function during gait in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 57: 389-97.
Lewek MD, Rudolph KS, Snyder-Mackler L. Control of frontal plane knee laxity during gait in patients with medial compartment knee OA. Osteoarthr Cartilage 2004; 12: 745-51.
Lind M, McClelland J, Wittwe JE, Whitehead TS, Feller JA, Webster KE. Gait analysis of walking before and after medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2013; 21: 74-81.
Czyżewska A, Glinkowski WM, Walesiak K, Krawczak K, Cabaj D, Górecki A. Effects of preoperative physiotherapy in hip osteoarthritis patients awaiting total hip replacement. Arch Med Sci 2014; 10: 985-91.
Bennel KL, Hunt MA, Wrigley TV, et al. Hip strengthening reduces symptoms but not knee load in people with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment: a randomised controlled trial. Osteoarthr Cartilage 2010; 18: 621-8.
Sharma L, Dunlop D, Cahue S, Song J, Hayes KW. Quadriceps strength and osteoarthritis progression in malaligned and lax knees. Ann Intern Med 2003; 138: 613-9.
Lim B, Kemp G, Metcalf B, et al. The association of quadriceps strength with the knee adduction moment in medial knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 61: 451-8.
Segal NA, Torner JC, Felson D, et al. Effect of thigh strength in incident radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in a longitudinal cohort. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 61: 1210-7.
Lim B, Hinman RS, Wrigley TV, Sharma L, Bennell KL. Does knee malalignment mediate the effects of quadriceps strengthening on knee adduction moment, pain, and function in medial knee ostaoarthritis? A randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 59: 943-51.
Koczewski P. Zaburzenia osi kończyn dolnych i zasady ich korekcji. In: Wiktora Degi ortopedia i rehabilitacja. Vol. 2. Marciniak W, Szulc A (eds.). PZWL, Warsaw 2003; 465-95.
Seng CS, Derek CH, Chong HC, et al. Outcomes and survivorship of unicondylar knee arthroplasty in patients with severe deformity. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2014; doi: 10.1007/s00167-014-3464-9 [Epub ahead of print].
Brouwer RW, Huizinga MR, Duivenvoorden T, et al. Osteotomy for treating knee osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014, doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004019.pub4.
Khurana D, Sankhala SS, Malik M, Shekhawat V, Rathore DS. Comparative study of high tibial osteotomy using dynamic axial fixator and locked low-profile plate in medial osteoarthritis of knee. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2015; 25: 763-73.
Fujisawa Y, Masuhara K, Shiomi S. The effect of high tibial osteotomy on osteoarthritis of the knee. An arthroscopic study of 54 knee joints. Orthop Clin North Am 1979; 8: 585-608.
Jakob RP, Murphy SB. Tibial osteotomy for varus gonarthrosis: indication, planning, and operative technique. Instr Course Lect 1992; 41: 87-93.
Tsukada S, Wakui M. Is overcorrection preferable for repair of degenerated articular cartilage after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2015; doi: 10.1007/s00167-015-3655-z [Epub ahead of print].
FEATURED PRODUCTS
Quick links
© 2018 Termedia Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Developed by Bentus.
PayU - płatności internetowe