eISSN: 1731-2531
ISSN: 1642-5758
Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
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4/2022
vol. 54
 
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abstract:
Original paper

Respiratory mechanics in late COVID-19 ARDS – a restrictive pattern is strongly associated with death. A cohort study

David Pestaña
1, 2
,
Luisa Maria Villar
3
,
Maria Gomez-Rojo
1
,
Garbiñe Roy
3
,
Borja Hinojal Olmedillo
1
,
Claudia Giménez
1
,
Paloma Zambrana
1
,
Gloria Guisado
1
,
Azucena Aláez
1
,
Tommaso Bardi
1, 2

1.
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain
2.
Department of Health Science, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain
3.
Department of Immunology, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IRYCIS, Madrid, Spain
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2022; 54, 4: 295–301
Online publish date: 2022/11/17
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Introduction
COVID-19 is associated with severe respiratory distress and high mortality. We investigated the evolution of the respiratory mechanics in COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the occurrence of a restrictive respiratory pattern.

Material and methods
A retrospective, single-centre study including patients admitted to the ICU during the first wave of the pandemic (March-April 2020).

Results
A total of 141 consecutive patients were included. Many patients developed a restrictive pattern of respiratory mechanics during the course of the disease. Fifty-two patients died in the hospital (36.8%). In 29 cases (58% of the deceased) death was associated with a pattern of pulmonary mechanics, indicating a restrictive evolution of ARDS. Other diagnoses related to death were pulmonary embolism (n = 7, 14%), septic shock (n = 17, 33%), and other causes (n = 10, 20%), with some patients combining at least 2 of these diagnoses. In a multivariate analysis, age (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01–1.12; P = 0.029) and the administration of steroid pulses (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.8; P = 0.03) were associated with the development of a restrictive pulmonary pattern and a higher level of plasmatic interleukin-6.

Conclusions
COVID-19 ARDS is associated with high mortality associated with a specific pattern of respiratory mechanics and sustained activation of innate immunological response. Age and administration of high-dose steroid pulses are associated with this clinical picture.

keywords:

COVID-19, adult, interleukins, restrictive lung disease, respiratory distress syndrome, respiration, artificial, late respiratory distress syndrome

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