eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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vol. 39

Review paper
Immunosuppressive therapy in allograft transplantation: from novel insights and strategies to tolerance and challenges

Ammar Ebrahimi
Seyed Ahmad Hosseini
Fakher Rahim

(Centr Eur J Immunol 2014; 39 (3): 400-409)
Online publish date: 2014/10/14
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Immunosuppression therapy is the key to successful post-transplantation outcomes. The need for ideal immunosuppression became durable maintenance of long-term graft survival. In spite of current immunosuppressive therapy regimens advances, surgical procedures, and preservation methods, organ transplantation is associated with a long-term poor survival and significant mortality. This has led to an increased interest to optimize outcomes while minimizing associated toxicity by using alternative methods for maintenance immunosuppression, organ rejection treatment, and monitoring of immunosuppression. T regulatory (Treg) cells, which have immunosuppressive functions and cytokine profiles, have been studied during the last decades. Treg cells are able to inhibit the development of allergen-specific cell responses and consequently play a key role in a healthy immune response to allergens. Mature dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the differentiation of Tregs, which are known to regulate allergic inflammatory responses. Advance in long-standing allograft outcomes may depend on new drugs with novel mechanisms of action with minimal toxicity. Newer treatment techniques have been developed, including using novel stem cell-based therapies such as mesenchymal stem cells, phagosomes and exosomes. Immunoisolation techniques and salvage therapies, including photopheresis and total lymphoid irradiation have emerged as alternative therapeutic choices. The present review evaluates the recent clinical advances in immunosuppressive therapies for organ transplantation.

immunosuppression, transplantation, immunoisolation, immune rejection, mesenchymal stem cells, exosomes

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