eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
1/2021
vol. 46
 
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abstract:
Clinical immunology

Seminal pro-inflammatory cytokines and pH are affected by Chlamydia infection in asymptomatic patients with teratozoospermia

Elvia Pérez-Soto
1, 2
,
Rigoberto Oros-Pantoja
1
,
Eduardo Fernández-Martínez
3
,
Juan Manuel Carbonell-Campos
4
,
Virginia Sánchez Monroy
5

1.
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Mexico
2.
Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatía, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico
3.
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology. Centro de Investigación en Biología de la Reproducción, Área Académica de Medicina, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Mexico
4.
Hospital Militar de Especialidades de la Mujer y Neonatología de la Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional, Mexico
5.
Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México
Cent Eur J Immunol 2021; 46 (1): 76-81
Online publish date: 2021/04/18
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Introduction
Infection and inflammation of the reproductive tract by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are recognized as significant risk factors for male infertility. This study aimed to evaluate CT infection and its effects on seminal parameters and cytokines in asymptomatic patients with teratozoospermia.

Material and methods
Semen samples from one hundred four male patients were collected, and CT detection was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The quality (volume, sperm concentration, pH, motility, morphology, and leucocytes) of the semen was measured by standard procedures recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor  (TNF-), and interferon  (IFN-)], as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10), were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The frequency of CT infection was expressed as a percentage. Descriptive statistics were used for comparison of cytokines from infertile men, and then the Mann-Whitney U test was applied for the contrast of seminal parameters and cytokines from CT-infected versus non-CT infected men.

Results
A ratio of 33/104 (31.7%) patients were positive for CT infection. The ejaculate of positive CT infection was found to have increased pH (pH = 7.65 in non-CT infected vs. 7.94 CT-infected men; p = 0.026). High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were found in the population studied; however, infected males were noted to have high levels of IL-1 [184.66 (0-3985.33 pg/ml), p = 0.001] and IL-6 [87.8 (0-1042.8 pg/ml), p = 0.001].

Conclusions
CT infection increased seminal pH, as well as IL-1 and IL-6 cytokines, suggesting a potential role of infection and inflammation in asymptomatic patients with teratozoospermia.

keywords:

Chlamydia trachomatis, inflammation, male infertility, teratozoospermia, cytokines, semen

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