eISSN: 1896-9151
ISSN: 1734-1922
Archives of Medical Science
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2/2020
vol. 16
 
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abstract:
Clinical research

Takotsubo syndrome – fatal prognosis of patients with low body mass index in 5-year follow-up

Małgorzata Zalewska-Adamiec
,
Jolanta Małyszko
,
Hanna Bachórzewska-Gajewska
,
Anna Tomaszuk-Kazberuk
,
Sławomir J. Dobrzycki

Arch Med Sci 2020; 16 (2): 282–288
Online publish date: 2019/08/08
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Introduction
The clinical courses of takotsubo syndrome (TS) and of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) seem to be very similar. However, there is limited knowledge about risk factors of poor outcomes. Low body mass index worsens the prognosis of patients with cardiovascular diseases, especially those undergoing surgical treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) on the prognosis in patients diagnosed with TS.

Material and methods
Eighty patients aged 15–89 (mean: 67.9 years), 74 women and 6 men with TS diagnosis according to Mayo Clinic diagnostic criteria were divided into 3 groups: low body mass (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), normal body mass (18.5 ≥ BMI < 25 kg/m2) and excessive body mass (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2).

Results
Patients with low BMI were older, but with less prevalent risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and positive family history of coronary artery disease and more frequent risk factors such as cigarette smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), depressive and anxiety disorders as well as malignancy. They also had higher haemoglobin, lower troponin, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein and lipid fractions. The highest annual, 3-year and 5-year mortality was observed in the group with BMI < 18.5 kg/m2. None of the patients with low BMI survived the 5-year follow-up period (100% vs. 25% vs. 15.2%; p < 0.0001). In group III, mortality among overweight patients (25 ≥ BMI < 30 kg/m2) was 8.3%, and in obese people (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 1 out 5 patients died during follow-up.

Conclusions
The majority of typical cardiovascular risk factors are less frequently observed in patients with TS and low body mass. Early prognosis for TS patients and low BMI is relatively favourable, whereas the 5-year follow-up is associated with extremely high mortality. Overweight patients have the best prognosis in the long-term follow-up.

keywords:

takotsubo syndrome, body mass index, mortality

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