en POLSKI
eISSN: 2084-9834
ISSN: 0034-6233
Reumatologia/Rheumatology
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6/2020
vol. 58
 
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abstract:
Original paper

The complement system in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: the expression of certain cascade and regulatory proteins in labial salivary glands – observational study

Marta Legatowicz-Koprowska
1
,
Stanisław Nitek
2
,
Jolanta Czerwińska
1

1.
Department of Pathology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland
2.
Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
Reumatologia 2020; 58, 6: 357–366
Online publish date: 2020/12/23
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Introduction
The complement cascade and regulatory proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of the Sjögren’s syndrome and other autoimmune diseases. The complement activation via the alternative pathway was recognized as a major pathogenic mechanism in autoimmune conditions. The aim of this study was to assess expression of complement cascade components and regulatory proteins in minor salivary glands in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS).

Material and methods
The expression of C1q and C5b-9 – membrane attack complex and regu­latory proteins such as: membrane cofactor protein (MCP), decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and protectin were examined using immunochemistry method in specimens from biopsy of minor salivary glands in pSS patients. The biopsy material was obtained from 20 pSS patients, 5 patients with non-specific sialadenitis and from 5 patients with suspicion of dryness syndrome without sialadenitis confirmation.

Results
None of the examined samples showed the expression of C1q or the effector C5b-9. Membrane cofactor protein expression was lower in pSS group than in both non-specific sialadenitis and noninflamed salivary glands. The inflammatory cells in pSS samples partially expressed MCP. There were differences in the sites and intensity of membrane protectin expression exclusively on the luminal surfaces in pSS; on the luminal and, partially, antiluminal surface in non-specific inflammation, and on the entire cell surface in unaffected salivary glands. There were no DAF expression in salivary gland tissue in biopsy specimens in all studied subjects.

Conclusions
The study demonstrated the absence of complement-cascade proteins (C1q, MAC) in the salivary glands of pSS patients, which may indicated a lack of local complement activation via the classical pathway and the observed gland tissue damage being due to a mechanism other than MAC-induced cytolysis. The differences in the expression of complement regulatory proteins between pSS, non-specific sialadenitis, and normal salivary glands may indicate that alternative functions of these regulatory proteins may be of greater significance in pSS. Low MCP expression in pSS in comparison with non-specific sialadenitis and normal salivary glands, may suggest altered modu­lation of cell-mediated immunity in pSS. The differences in the location and intensity of protectin (CD59) expression indicates a possibility of reducing the proinflammatory effect of protectin in pSS.

keywords:

primary Sjogren’s syndrome, complement system proteins, membrane cofactor protein CD46, protectin CD59







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