eISSN: 2084-9869
ISSN: 1233-9687
Polish Journal of Pathology
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vol. 64

The development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in cerebral vessels. A review with illustrations based upon own investigated post mortem cases

Tadeusz Andrzej Mendel
Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz
Eliza Lewandowska
Tomasz Stępień
Grażyna Maria Szpak

POL J PATHOL 2013; 64 (4): 260-267
Online publish date: 2013/12/26
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The process of β-amyloid accumulation in cerebral vessels is presented. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) was confirmed during an autopsy. It was diagnosed according to the Boston criteria. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy can involve all kinds of cerebral vessels (cortical and leptomeningeal arterioles, capillaries and veins). The development of CAA is a progressive process. β-amyloid appears first in the tunica media, surrounding smooth muscle cells, and in the adventitia. β-amyloid is progressively accumulated, causing a gradual loss of smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall and finally replacing them. Then, the detachment and delamination of the outer part of the tunica media results in the “double barrel” appearance, fibrinoid necrosis, and microaneurysm formation. Microbleeding with perivascular deposition of erythrocytes and blood breakdown products can also occur. β-amyloid can also be deposited in the surrounding of the affected vessels of the brain parenchyma, known as “dysphoric CAA”. Ultrastructurally, when deposits of amyloid fibers were localized in or outside the arteriolar wall, the degenerating vascular smooth muscle cells were observed. In the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology the study was carried out in a group of 48 patients who died due to intracerebral hemorrhage caused by sporadic CAA.

celebral amyloid angiopathy, CAA, β-amyloid, intracelebral hemorrhage, ultrastructure

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