eISSN: 1896-9151
ISSN: 1734-1922
Archives of Medical Science
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abstract:
Clinical research

The effect of active and passive maternal smoking before and during pregnancy on neonatal weight at birth

Cezary Wojtyła, Paulina Wojtyła-Buciora, Michał Ciebiera, Stanisław Orzechowski, Andrzej Wojtyła

Online publish date: 2018/11/15
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Introduction
Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data on the correlation between passive maternal smoking and pregnancy outcomes remain limited. We investigated the effect of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during pregnancy on neonatal birthweight, including the risk for low birthweight (LBW).

Material and methods
The study was conducted between 2010 and 2012. A group of 8625 women were surveyed during postpartum hospitalization. Outcome measures included mean birthweight of newborns. Additionally, odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated to investigate the risk for LBW in active and passive smoking groups of mothers.

Results
Lower birthweight (46 g – 307 g; p < 0.05) and a higher risk for LBW (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.05–1.75; p < 0.05) were observed in all infants born to smoking mothers. A negative effect of ETS in pregnancy on the reduction of mean birthweight was also found. Additionally, we analyzed the cumulative effect of active and passive smoking on neonatal birthweight. A statistically significant reduction in neonatal weight at birth was found in a group of women who smoked actively and passively during pregnancy (130 g; p < 0.05).

Conclusions
Smoking is associated with decreased birthweight and in a group of active smoking mothers increased risk for LBW. This effect is dose-dependent and is also present in a group of women who smoked before pregnancy. There is also a cumulative effect of active smoking and ETS causing decreased neonatal birthweight and increased risk for low birthweight.

keywords:

tobacco, environmental tobacco smoke, maternal smoking, birthweight

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