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vol. 14
Experimental research

The effects of ketamine and thiopental used alone or in combination on the brain, heart, and bronchial tissues of rats

Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu, Pelin Aydin, Ali Ahiskalioglu, Bahadir Suleyman, Ufuk Kuyrukluyildiz, Nezahat Kurt, Durdu Altuner, Resit Coskun, Halis Suleyman

Arch Med Sci 2018; 14, 3: 645–654
Online publish date: 2016/06/06
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We compared the side effects of ketamine and thiopental used alone and of a ketamine/thiopental combination dose on the brain,heart, and bronchial tissues of rats.

Material and methods
Three groups received intraperitoneal injections of 30 mg/kg ketamine (K-30); 15 mg/kg thiopental (T-15); or of both in combination (KTSA). These doses were doubled in another set of study groups (K-60, T-30, and KTA groups, respectively). Optimal anesthesia duration was examined in all groups.

Anesthesia did not occur with 30 mg/kg ketamine or 15 mg/kg thiopental. However, when used alone ketamine and thiopental led to oxidative stress in the striatum, heart, and bronchial tissues. Conversely, combined administration of anesthetics and subanesthetic doses were found not to create oxidative stress in any of these areas. The highest level of adrenaline in blood samples collected from the tail veins was measured in the KTA-60, and the lowest amount in the T-30. Creatine kinase activity was highest in the KTA-60 group (p < 0.001). When we compared for all 5 groups to untreated control group; the creatine kinase-MB activities were significiantly different in K-30, T-15 and T-30 (p < 0.001).

The studied doses of ketamine led to oxidative stress by increasing the amount of adrenaline. Thiopental increased oxidative stress with decreases in adrenaline. A longer anesthetic effect with minimal adverse events may be achieved by ketamine and thiopental in combination.


ketamine, thiopental, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, oxidative stress

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