eISSN: 1896-9151
ISSN: 1734-1922
Archives of Medical Science
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vol. 16
Letter to the Editor

The significance of chemokine CXCL-8 in esophageal carcinoma

Marta Łukaszewicz-Zając
Sara Pączek
Barbara Mroczko

Arch Med Sci 2020; 16 (2): 475–480
Online publish date: 2020/02/04
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Chemokines are a group of small molecular weight proteins that are structurally related. These molecules play an important role in the growth, differentiation and activation of many types of cells [1, 2]. Chemokines are synthesized mostly by leukocytes and act through their cognate G-protein coupled receptors to cause a cellular response, such as migration, adhesion or chemotaxis [1, 3]. The chemokine family has been classified into four classes: CC, CXC, CX3C, and (X), based on the arrangement of N-terminal cysteine residues [4]. These small peptides may also be grouped into inflammatory, homeostatic or dual function chemokines. Inflammatory chemokines can be induced during an immune response, whereas homeostatic chemokines are involved in control of cell migration [5]. The chemokine receptors are seven-transmembrane receptors coupled to G-proteins, that consist of an N-terminus outside the cell surface, three extracellular and three intracellular loops as well as a C-terminus in the cytoplasm [6, 7]. C-X-C motif chemokine 8 (CXCL-8) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that belongs to the CXC chemokine subgroup. The CXC family members, known as -chemokines, have an intervening amino acid between the first two cysteines and are located on chromosome 4 [8]. The CXC chemokines were further classified based on the presence or absence of the motif glu-leu-arg (ELR motif), into ELR+ and ELR– chemokines [3]. CXCL-8 is also known as interleukin-8 (IL-8) as well as neutrophil-activating peptide-1 (NAP-1). This cytokine was originally described as an inducer of neutrophil mobilizations in vivo [9, 10]. The CXCL-8 gene encodes for a protein of 99 amino acids that is processed to either 72 amino acids in monocytes and macrophages or 77 amino acids in nonimmune cells [7, 11]. In physiological conditions CXCL-8 stimulates release of neutrophil granules. As a chemoattractant, this cytokine may change the levels of intracellular calcium as well as inducing re-arrangement of the cytoskeleton and exocytosis of granule proteins [5, 12]. The activation of CXCL-8 is regulated via two cell-surface, G protein coupled receptors (CXCR-1 and CXCR-2) that are structurally similar [6, 7]. The CXCR-1 receptor is activated in response to binding of CXCL-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2), while CXCR-2 is activated by multiple C-X-C chemokines, such as growth-related oncogenes (GRO) [6, 7]. In addition, it has been assessed that CXCR-2 is the primary receptor for...

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