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vol. 5
Original paper

Universals and specifics of the structure and hierarchy of basic human values in Vietnam

Joanna Różycka-Tran, Truong Thi Khanh Ha, Jan Cieciuch, Shalom H. Schwartz

Health Psychology Report, 5(3), 193–204
Online publish date: 2017/02/28
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The article presents the first assessment of the structure and hierarchy of values using the Schwartz theory in Vietnam. Given the near-universal prevalence of the structure of values, we expected this to be found in Vietnam as well. Regarding the hierarchy of values, we expected the hierarchies in the Vietnamese samples to be quite different from the pan-cultural baseline because of Vietnam’s traditional culture.

Participants and procedure

We administered a Vietnamese version of the Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ-40) to adult respondents in three regions, Ho Chi Minh City/Saigon (n = 521), Hue (n = 538), and Hanoi (n = 533).


Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) analyses of the total sample and the samples from each region supported the theorized circular structure. However, it was necessary to combine some adjacent values in the circle in each sample. The hierarchies of values in the samples differed substantially from the pan-cultural hierarchy identified by Schwartz and Bardi. The values exhibited partial scalar invariance across the three regional samples, justifying comparisons of means.


We discuss the differences in value hierarchies among regions and between Vietnam and other countries by examining the cultural, historical, and social structural characteristics specific to Vietnam and its regions. In future research, it would be worthwhile to explore causes, processes and consequences of the values in Vietnam.

Vietnam; structure of values; human values; hierarchy of values; PVQ-40

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