eISSN: 2299-0054
ISSN: 1895-4588
Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
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vol. 13
Original paper

Upper extremity surface electromyography signal changes after laparoscopic training

Michał M. Nowakowski, Paulina Trybek, Mateusz Rubinkiewicz, Tomasz Cegielny, Michał Romaniszyn, Michał Pędziwiatr, Łukasz Machura

Videosurgery Miniinv 2018; 13 (4): 485–493
Online publish date: 2018/10/03
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Objective measures of laparoscopic skill in training are lacking.

To evaluate the changes in the surface electromyography (sEMG) signal during laparoscopic training, and to link them to intracorporeal knot tying.

Material and methods
Ten right-handed medical students (6 female), aged 25 ±0.98, without training in laparoscopy, were enrolled in the study. With no additional training, they tied intracorporeal single knots for 15 min. Then underwent laparoscopic training and redid the knot tying exercise. During both events, sEMG was recorded from 8 measurement points on the upper extremities and neck bilaterally. We analyzed changes in sEMG resulting from training and tried to find sEMG predictive parameters for higher technical competence defined by the number of knots tied after the training.

The average number of knots increased after the training. Significant decreases in activity after the training were visible for the non-dominant hand deltoid and trapezius muscles. Dominant and non-dominant hands had different activation patterns. Differences largely disappeared after the training. All muscles, except for the dominant forearm and non-dominant thenar, produced a negative correlation between their activities and the number of tied knots. The strongest anticorrelation occurred for the non-dominant deltoid (r = –0.863, p < 0.05). Relatively strong relationships were identified in the case of the non-dominant trapezius and forearm muscles (r = –0.587, r = –0.504).

At least for some muscle groups there is a change in activation patterns after laparoscopic training. Proximal muscle groups tend to become more relaxed and the distal ones become more active. Changes in the non-dominant hand are more pronounced than in the dominant hand.


laparoscopy, assessment, training, surface electromyography

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