eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
3/2021
vol. 46
 
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abstract:
Clinical immunology

Urine and serum interleukin 35 as potential biomarkers of lupus nephritis

Mary Atef Nassif
1

1.
Department of Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Cent Eur J Immumol 2021; 46 (3): 351-359
Online publish date: 2021/10/07
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Introduction
Lupus nephritis (LN) is considered a serious manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, a reliable non-invasive biomarker is a priority for monitoring renal involvement instead of the kidney biopsy. Interleukin 35 (IL-35) has an immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory role in many autoimmune diseases. However, its role in LN still needs to be elucidated.
Aim of the study: To evaluate urine and serum levels of IL-35 in SLE patients with LN and without nephritis identifying their potential as biomarkers of renal involvement.

Material and methods
Urine and serum levels of IL-35 were measured in 42 SLE patients, divided into 22 with LN and 20 without LN, and 20 matched healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SLE disease activity was assessed for patients by the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K).

Results
Levels of serum and urine IL-35 were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the LN group compared with those without LN and with controls. In LN patients, a strong correlation (p < 0.001) was observed between serum and urine IL-35 levels with SLEDAI-2K score (r = 0.677 and 0.806 respectively). Furthermore, proteinuria had a strong and significant correlation (p  0.001) with serum and urinary IL-35 levels in the patients with LN. Serum IL-35 had 90.9% sensitivity and 85% specificity while urine IL-35 had 95.5% sensitivity and 75% specificity to differentiate LN from healthy individuals.

Conclusions
Urine and serum IL-35 may aid in assessment of renal involvement in SLE patients, serving as potential biomarkers of LN.

keywords:

systemic lupus erythematosus, SLEDAI, lupus nephritis, interleukin 35

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