eISSN: 1644-4124
ISSN: 1426-3912
Central European Journal of Immunology
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Review paper

Vaccine research and development: tuberculosis as a global health threat

Mohammed Maikudi Usman, Salmah Ismail, Teow Chong Teoh

(Cent Eur J Immunol 2017; 42 (2):196-204)
One of the aims of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is to reduce the number of cases of tuberculosis (TB) infection by the year 2015. However, 9 million new cases were reported in 2013, with an estimated 480,000 new cases of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) globally. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most available and currently used candidate vaccine against tuberculosis; it prevents childhood TB, but its effectiveness against pulmonary TB in adults and adolescents is disputed. To achieve the goal of the WHO MDG, the need for a new improved vaccine is of primary importance. This review highlights several articles that have reported vaccine development. There are about 16 TB vaccines in different phases of clinical trials at the time of writing, which include recombinant peptide/protein, live-attenuated and recombinant live-attenuated, protein/adjuvant, viral-vectored, and immunotherapeutic vaccine. Further studies in reverse vaccinology and massive campaigns on vaccination are needed in order to achieve the target for TB eradication by 2050.

tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, vaccine, clinical trials, BCG vaccine

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