ISSN: 2544-4395
Physiotherapy Quarterly
Current issue Archive Manuscripts accepted About the journal Editorial board Instructions for Reviewers Journal's Reviewers Special information Abstracting and indexing Contact Instructions for authors Ethical standards and procedures
Editorial System
Submit your Manuscript
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
vol. 31
Original paper

Validation of non-radiographic APECS software in comparison with standard radiographic measurement of full-length lower limb hip-knee-ankle angle in elderly obese women

Aarti Welling
Peeyoosha Gurudut
Grisha Shirodkar
Nehal Shetye
Shifa Khan

Department of Orthopaedic Physiotherapy, KAHER Institute of Physiotherapy, Belagavi, India
Physiother Quart. 2023;31(1):90–94
Online publish date: 2023/03/21
Article file
- PQ_31(1)_90_94.pdf  [1.40 MB]
Get citation
PlumX metrics:
1. Segula D. Complications of obesity in adults: a short review of the literature. Malawi Med J. 2014;26(1):20–24.
2. Inoue Y, Qin B, Poti J, Sokol R, Gordon-Larsen P. Epidemiology of obesity in adults: latest trends. Curr Obes Rep. 2018;7(4):276–288; doi: 10.1007/s13679-018-0317-8.
3. Ahluwalia N. Aging, nutrition and immune function. J Nutr Health Aging. 2004;8(1):2–6.
4. Singh P, Kapil U, Dey AB. Prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst elderly patients attending a geriatric clinic in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. Indian J Med Sci. 2004;58(4):162–163.
5. Swami HM, Bhatia V, Gupta AK, Bhatia SPS. An epidemiological study of obesity among elderly in Chandigarh. Indian J Community Med. 2005;30(1):11–13.
6. Rajkamal R, Singh Z, Stalin P, Muthurajesh E. Prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity among elderly population in an urban area of Puducherry. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015;4(3):369–372; doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2015.3110201477.
7. Atapattu PM. Obesity at menopause: an expanding problem. J Pat Care. 2015;1(1):103; doi: 10.4172/2573-4598.1000103.
8. Brealey S, Scally A, Hahn S, Thomas N, Godfrey C, Coo­marasamy A. Accuracy of radiographer plain radiograph reporting in clinical practice: a meta-analysis. Clin Radiol. 2005;60(2):232–241; doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2004.07.012.
9. Treaster DE, Burr D. Gender differences in prevalence of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder. Ergonomics. 2004;47(5):495–526; doi: 10.1080/00140130310001638171.
10. Soheilipour F, Pazouki A, Mazaherinezhad A, Yagou­b­zadeh K, Dadgostar H, Rouhani F. The prevalence of genu varum and genu valgum in overweight and obese patients: assessing the relationship between body mass index and knee angular deformities. Acta Biomed. 2020;91(4):e2020121; doi: 10.23750/abm.v91i4.9077.
11. Sheehy L, Felson D, Zhang Y, Niu J, Lam Y-M, Segal N, et al. Does measurement of the anatomic axis consistently predict hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA) for knee alignment studies in osteoarthritis? Analysis of long limb radiographs from the multicenter osteoarthritis (MOST) study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011;19(1):58–64; doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2010.09.011.
12. Issa SN, Dunlop D, Chang A, Song J, Prasad PV, Guer­mazi A, et al. Full-limb and knee radiography assessments of varus-valgus alignment and their relationship to osteoarthritis disease features by magnetic resonance imaging. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;57(3):398–406; doi: 10.1002/art.22618.
13. University Grenoble Alpes and Grenoble Ecole de Management. AI Posture Evaluation and Correction System Software (APECS). Grenoble; 2018. Available 12.12.2021 from:
14. Streiner DL, Norman GR. Health measurement scales. A practical guide to their development and use. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1995.
15. Hulley SB, Cummings SR. Designing clinical research. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1988.
16. Girdhar S, Sharma S, Chaudhrary A, Bansal P, Satija M. An epidemiological study of overweight and obesity among women in an urban area of North India. Indian J Community Med. 2016;41(2):154–157; doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.173492.
17. Pelvis and upper femora. Radiology Key; 2016. Available 15.01.2022 from:
18. Mourcou Q, Fleury A, Diot B, Franco C, Vuillerme N. Mobile phone-based joint angle measurement for functional assessment and rehabilitation of proprioception. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:328142; doi: 10.1155/2015/328142.
19. Wang K, Hussaini SH, Teasdall RD, Gwam CU, Scott AT. Smartphone applications for assessing ankle range of motion in clinical practice. Foot Ankle Orthop. 2019;4(3):2473011419874779; doi: 10.1177/2473011419874779.
20. Raj B, An overview of human pose estimation with deep learning. 2019. Available 21.11.2021 from:
21. Gibson K, Sayers SP, Minor MA. Measurement of varus/valgus alignment in obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 2010;62(5):690–696; doi: 10.1002/acr.20084.
22. Kraus VB, Vail TP, Worrell T, McDaniel G. A comparative assessment of alignment angle of the knee by radiographic and physical examination methods. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52(6):1730–1735; doi: 10.1002/art.21100.
23. Hazar Z, Karabicak GO, Tiftikci U. Reliability of photographic posture analysis of adolescents. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015;27(10):3123–3126; doi: 10.1589/jpts.27.3123.
Copyright: © Wroclaw University of Health and Sport Sciences, Poland. This is an Open Access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND) (, allowing third parties to download and share its works but not commercially purposes or to create derivative works.

Quick links
© 2023 Termedia Sp. z o.o.
Developed by Bentus.