eISSN: 2449-8238
ISSN: 2392-1099
Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
2/2019
vol. 5
 
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abstract:
Review paper

Epidemiology of gallbladder cancer

Prashanth Rawla
,
Tagore Sunkara
,
Krishna Chaitanya Thandra
,
Adam Barsouk

Clin Exp HEPATOL 2019; 5, 2: 93–102
Online publish date: 2019/05/23
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According to GLOBOCAN 2018 data, gallbladder cancer (GBC) accounts for 1.2% of all global cancer diagnoses, but 1.7% of all cancer deaths. Only 1 in 5 GBC cases in the United States is diagnosed at an early stage, and median survival for advanced stage cancer is no more than about a year. The incidence of the disease is increasing in the developed world. Gallstones, biliary cysts, carcinogen exposure, typhoid, and Helicobacter pylori infection, and abnormal pancreaticobiliary duct junctions are all risk factors, many of which account for its geographical, ethnic and sex distribution. Genetics also plays a strong role, as about a quarter of GBC cases are considered familial, and certain ethnicities, such as Native Americans, are at far higher risk for the neoplasm. Prevention includes weight loss, vaccination against and treatment of bacterial infections, early detection and elimination of polyps and cysts, and avoidance of oral estrogen replacement therapy.
keywords:

risk factor, survival, incidence, etiology, mortality

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