eISSN: 2083-8441
ISSN: 2081-237X
Pediatric Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank

1/2019
vol. 25
 
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abstract:
Review paper

The prognostic value of inflammatory and vascular endothelial dysfunction biomarkers in microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes

Anna Wołoszyn-Durkiewicz, Małgorzata Myśliwiec

Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2019; 25 (1): 28-35
Online publish date: 2019/05/23
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Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterised by a destruction of pancreatic  cells, which leads to absolute insulin deficiency. Persistently high glycaemia causes vascular damage throughout the body. Microvascular complications com-prise the following: nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Macrovascular complications include coronary heart disease (CHD), which may result in myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease (leading to strokes), and peripheral vascular disease. The pathogene-sis of vascular complications is multifactorial and is probably the combination of direct glucose-mediated endothelial damage, oxidative stress, production of sorbitol, and advanced glycation end-products. Precise understanding of these mechanisms could help clinicians to identify diabetic complications earlier and subsequently implement indispensable therapy on time. It is vital to determine biomarkers of microvascular and macrovascular complications in children affected with T1DM. Advanced glycation end-products and their receptors, adhesive molecules, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes such as N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and growth factors are the subject of ongoing studies. Numerous biomarkers of diabetic microangiopathy are already known and may constitute therapeutic targets in the future. Unfortunately, despite substantial progress in the understanding of the processes by which microvascular and macrovascu-lar complications develop, much effort still needs to be devoted to the matter, and further investigations are required.
keywords:

diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetic angiopathy, cytokines, cell adhesion molecules

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