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Giant gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm as a pancreatic tumor and cause of acute bleeding into the digestive tract
Jacek Budzyński, Grzegorz Meder, Karol Suppan
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A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our department in October of 2014 due to abdominal pain that had begun 2 weeks earlier. On admission she did not present crucial abnormalities upon physical examination, other than a longitudinal scar in the anterior abdominal wall. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a peripancreatic tumor with signs of blood flow inside (Figure 1 A). According to the patient’s medical history, three hospitalizations had occurred on other wards due to: severe acute pancreatitis (August of 2012); a pancreatic pseudocyst that required drainage under endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) control (October of 2013); and a tumor of the pancreatic head (50 × 53 × 51 mm on abdominal computed tomography (CT)) and diabetes mellitus (September of 2014). During the last hospitalization the patient was referred to the Surgical Department because of the obscure character of the tumor of the pancreatic head and a family history of pancreatic cancer in order to perform the pancreato-duodenectomy. However, during the laparotomy the surgeons changed the primary plan and biopsies were taken only from the tumor. The results of the biopsies showed inflammatory and fibroid tissue in the pancreatic lesion (September 2014).
In our department, the initial suspicion of a vascular pancreatic lesion was confirmed using computed tomography angiography (angio-CT), which described: pseudoaneurysm of the gastroduodenal artery, 50 × 40 mm in size (Figures 1 B–D), gastric fundus varices, liver steatosis with perfusion disturbances, and a dilated Wirsung duct. The female patient thus qualified for endovascular embolization. However, the procedure failed due to a problem with the catheterization of the vessel supplying the pseudoaneurysm. The patient was discharged without further complications. A second intervention was postponed due to radiation and the unchanged diameter of the pseudoaneurysm compared to September 2014. In November 2014, the patient was admitted due to signs of hemorrhage into the digestive tract with an obscure bleeding source, but without hemodynamic instability or significant decline in hemoglobin blood concentration. A second embolization of the gastroduodenal artery with coils placed distally and proximally to the canal supplying the lesion (to avoid retrograde filling) was performed with success. Control angiography (Figure 1 E) and ultrasonography (Figure 1 F) performed 2 months after discharge did not detect any residual pseudoaneurysm....
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