eISSN: 1897-4295
ISSN: 1734-9338
Advances in Interventional Cardiology/Postępy w Kardiologii Interwencyjnej
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vol. 14
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Hybrid muscular ventricular septal defect closure in a 4.5 kg infant followed by sildenafil treatment and transcatheter atrial septal defect occlusion

Michal Galeczka
Roland Fiszer
Szymon Pawlak
Joanna Sliwka
Linda Litwin
Malgorzata Szkutnik

Adv Interv Cardiol 2018; 14, 1 (51): 112–114
Online publish date: 2018/03/22
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A 4.5 kg 3-month-old girl was admitted with heart failure symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed 5.5 mm midmuscular ventricular septal defect (VSD) with bidirectional shunt, 6 mm typically located secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), right heart enlargement and signs of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Our heart team decided to perform a hybrid VSD closure. After sterno- and pericardiotomy and heart apex elevation the right ventricle (RV) was punctured on the beating heart under epicardial echocardiography (EE) guidance (Figure 1). Right ventricle pressure of 40/0/6 mm Hg and arterial pressure of 64/40/50 mm Hg were measured. The VSD was crossed with a J-tip guidewire, and then a 8 French (Fr) delivery sheath was advanced. Taking into consideration the delicate manual maneuvers, the 7 mm Hyperion VSD Muscular Occluder (Comed B.V., The Netherlands/Lepu MT Company, China) was successfully deployed under EE (Figure 2) – an insignificant residual leak was observed. The intervention was uneventful. On the first day after the procedure during weaning from mechanical ventilation a pulmonary hypertensive crisis occurred, manifested by significant bradycardia and arterial saturation fall. Therefore, NO inhalation, sildenafil (15 mg/day), milrinone and furosemide were administered. The treatment enabled successful weaning from mechanical ventilation after 1 week. The patient’s 1-year follow-up with sildenafil administration at the same dose was uneventful. At the age of 15 months and weight of 10 kg, the girl was readmitted in order to perform heart catheterization with pulmonary artery (PA) pressure measurement. At that time diaphoresis during activity was noted in the anamnesis. In TTE 11 × 9 mm ASD with left-to-right shunt, two insignificant small residual muscular VSDs and right heart enlargement were observed. The PA pressure of 34/9/22 mm Hg and RV of 37/0/9 mm Hg were measured. Therefore, successful percutaneous ASD closure with a 12 mm Cocoon Septal Occluder (Vascular Innovations Co., Nonthaburi, Thailand, 8 Fr sheath) was performed under transesophageal guidance without balloon calibration (Figures 3, 4). In a 15-month follow-up the child was asymptomatic, TTE did not show residual leak through the ASD, and RV dimensions decreased, although on a decreasing dose of sildenafil.
Surgical closure of muscular VSDs in small infants is technically challenging [1]. Especially VSDs located apically are difficult to identify surgically....

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