eISSN: 1897-4252
ISSN: 1731-5530
Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska/Polish Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Current issue Archive Manuscripts accepted About the journal Supplements Editorial board Reviewers Abstracting and indexing Contact Instructions for authors Ethical standards and procedures
Editorial System
Submit your Manuscript
SCImago Journal & Country Rank
vol. 21
Original paper

Should varicocele screening be conducted in men diagnosed with chronic venous insufficiency? A prospective study

Ferit Çetinkaya
Kamil Doğan
Ayşe Taş

  1. Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Ağrı Education and Research Hospital, Ağrı, Turkiye
  2. Department of Radiology, Ağrı Education and Research Hospital, Ağrı, Turkiye
  3. Department of Public Health, Battalgazi District Health Directorate, Malatya, Turkiye
Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska 2024; 21 (1): 35-38
Online publish date: 2024/03/30
View full text Get citation
PlumX metrics:
It has been previously proposed in numerous studies that chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) has similar pathogenesis to varicocele in males. Varicocele has been identified as the most common cause of infertility in men, accounting for 40% of cases.

This study investigates whether varicocele screening should be conducted in patients with CVI and, if so, which patients should undergo such screening.

Material and methods
The study included 102 adult male patients with venous insufficiency complaints who presented to the cardiovascular surgery clinic between January 2023 and June 2023. Data were prospectively collected through medical history interviews and Doppler ultrasound measurements performed by a single radiologist. The relationship between non-normally distributed measurement data of the two groups was evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test, while the association between categorical variables was assessed using the c2 test. ROC analysis was employed for determining predictive value. A type 1 error level of  = 0.05 was adopted.

The mean left great saphenous vein (GSV) diameter of those with varicocele (6.6 ±2.3) was significantly larger compared to the mean left GSV diameter of those without varicocele (5.3 ±2.6) (p = 0.004). The area under the ROC curve for left GSV diameter was 67% (p = 0.005). When varicocele screening is performed in patients with a left GSV diameter of 5.35 cm and above, sensitivity is 71.4% and specificity is 61.2%.

There is a significant association between left GSV diameter and varicocele (p = 0.004). Varicocele screening can be carried out with 71.4% sensitivity in adult male patients with a left GSV diameter of 5.35 cm and above. Both cardiovascular surgeons and radiologists can conduct varicocele screening by measuring pampiniform veins in patients with a left GSV diameter of 5.35 cm and above. This approach has the potential to reduce the incidence of varicocele and associated infertility.


venous insufficiency, varicocele, screening, great saphenous vein, pampiniform

Quick links
© 2024 Termedia Sp. z o.o.
Developed by Bentus.