eISSN: 2449-8580
ISSN: 1734-3402
Family Medicine & Primary Care Review
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vol. 23
Review paper

A systematic review and meta-analysis of students’ study habits in Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences

Abdolreza Gilavand
Yasaman Emad

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Department of Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Family Medicine & Primary Care Review 2021; 23(3): 363–371
Online publish date: 2021/10/05
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Due to the role of correct habits in students’ academic progress, this study is aimed at evaluateing students’ study habits in Iranian medical universities.

Material and methods
Data collection method in this study was a systematic review and meta-analysis based on searches for articles published on reputable Iranian and international sites for words such as “study habits,” “students,” “University of Medical Sciences,” and “Iran”; it was conducted without any time limit. It used a standard questionnaire of 45 study habits by Palsane and Sharma (PSSHI). Also, in the dataj analysis, computer software R version 3.6.3 was used to estimate the average score of students’ study habits.

In the present study, 13 articles were reviewed, as a result of which 2,665 students who were studying at one of the Iranian medical universities from 2006 to 2018 were assessed. The overall score for students’ study habits was 49.03 out of a maximum score of 90. Similarly, eight areas of students’ study habits were calculated separately: time allocated was 5.61 out of a maximum score of 10; physical conditions was 6.94 out of a maximum score of 12; reading capability was 14.8 out of a maximum score of 16; note-taking was 3.17 out of a maximum score of 6; learning motivation was 6.93 out of a maximum score of 12; memory was 4.61 out of a maximum score of 8; taking exams was 9.92 out of a maximum score of 20; and health was 3.23 out of a maximum score of 6.

The overall score of the students’ study habits was moderate and the score for “taking exams” was the weakest. Consequently, bearing in mind that these areas of study are related to people’s health, it is probable that these students will have study habits that are better and higher than average; the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education of Iran should consider this point. Medical universities can assess their students’ study habits before they enroll in the university, and if necessary, improve these habits by performing some educational interventions, such as organizing training courses, and using mobile educational applications, etc.


medical students, systematic review, meta-analysis, Iran

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