eISSN: 2300-6722
ISSN: 1899-1874
Medical Studies/Studia Medyczne
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vol. 39
Review paper

COVID-19 humoral response

Adam Tworek
Andrzej Rydzewski
2, 3
Grażyna Rydzewska
1, 4
Martyna Głuszek-Osuch
1, 4
Konrad Lewandowski

Clinical Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unit, Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, Warsaw, Poland
Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine, Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Interior and Administration, Warsaw, Poland
Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland
Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland
Medical Studies/Studia Medyczne 2023; 39 (3): 296–303
Online publish date: 2023/09/30
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This article reviews studies on SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and post-vaccination response. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is closely related to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, sharing 79% and 50% of its genome sequence with them, respectively. Antibodies are crucial in identifying and destroying pathogens such as viruses, and understanding virus-specific antibodies can help end pandemics quickly. The SARS-CoV-2 virus uses the spike protein to enter human cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2). The immune response to the virus involves various components, including dendritic cells, T cells, B cells, and NAbs. Seroconversion, antibody kinetics, and immune response after COVID-19 vaccination are essential factors in understanding the virus and developing treatments. Neutralizing antibody therapies have been explored as potential treatments, but the emergence of viral variants challenges their long-term development. Lessons learned from antibody-based therapies can influence future strategies for treating emerging infectious diseases.

SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing antibodies, immune response, COVID-19 therapy, cytokine storm

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