eISSN: 2449-8580
ISSN: 1734-3402
Family Medicine & Primary Care Review
Current issue Archive Manuscripts accepted About the journal Editorial board Journal's reviewers Abstracting and indexing Subscription Contact Instructions for authors Ethical standards and procedures
SCImago Journal & Country Rank

vol. 23
Original paper

Change in spousal violence before and during Covid-19 pandemic in Egypt

Eman Esmat Tosson
Rabab Atta Saudi

Family Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia City, Egypt
Family Medicine & Primary Care Review 2021; 23(4): 481–487
Online publish date: 2021/12/30
Get citation
JabRef, Mendeley
Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the U.S. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services [cited 18.04.2020]. Available from URL: https://www.cdc. gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/cases-in-us.html.
2. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 497–506, doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30183-5.
3. World Health Organization. Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 [cited 11.03.2020]. Available from URL: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19-11- march-2020.
4. Parmet WE, Sinha MS. Covid-19 – the law and limits of quarantine. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(15): e28.
5. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Labor force statistics from the current population survey; 2020 [cited: 18.04.2020]. Available from URL: https://www.bls.gov/cps/cps_over.htm.
6. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet 2020; 395(10227): 912–920, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8.
7. Catalá-Miñana A, Lila M, Oliver A, et al. Contextual factors related to alcohol abuse among intimate partner violence offenders. Subst Use Misuse 2017; 52(3): 294–302, doi: 10.1080/ 10826084.2016.1225097.
8. Devries KM, Mak JYT, García-Moreno C, et al. The global prevalence of intimate partner violence against women. Science 2013; 340(6140): 1527–1528, doi: 10.1126/science.1240937.
9. Hawcroft C, Hughes R, Shaheen A, et al. Prevalence and health outcomes of domestic violence amongst clinical populations in Arab countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 2019; 19(1): 315, doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6619-2.
10. World Health Organisation. World Report on Violence and Health [cited: 12.04.2019]. Available from URL: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/viol ence/world_report/en/.
11. Abrahams N, Devries K, Pallitto C, et al. Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
12. Ministry of Health and Population [Egypt], El-Zanaty and Associates [Egypt], and ICF International. Egypt demographic and health survey. Cairo, Egypt and Rockville, Maryland, USA: Ministry of Health and Population and ICF International; 2014.
13. Douki S, Nacef F, Belhadj A, et al. Violence against women in Arab and Islamic countries. Arch Womens Ment Health 2003; 6(3): 165–171, doi: 10.1007/s00737-003-0170-x.
14. Pallitto C, García-Moreno C, Jansen H, et al. Intimate partner violence, abortion, and unintended pregnancy: results from the who multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2013; 120(1): 3–9, doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.07.003.
15. Abu-Ras WM. Cultural beliefs and service utilization by battered Arab immigrant women. Violence Against Women 2007; 13(10): 1002–1028, doi: 10.1177/1077801207306019.
16. Raj A, Silverman J. Violence against immigrant women: the roles of culture, context, and legal immigrant status on intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women 2002; 8(3): 367–398, doi: 10.1177/10778010222183107.
17. Swahnberg IM, Wijma B. The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ): validation of new measures of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and abuse in the health care system among women. Eur J Public Health 2003; 13: 361–366.
18. Haddad LG, Shotar A, Younger JB, et al. Screening for domestic violence in Jordan: validation of an Arabic version of domestic violence against women questionnaire. Int J Womens Health 2011; 3: 79.
19. World Health Organization, Global and Regional Estimates of Violence against Women. Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence, reproductive health and research. Geneva: WHO; 2013. Available from URL: http://apps who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/85240/1/9789241548595_eng.
20. Rurangirwa AA, Mogren I, Ntaganira J, et al. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda, its associated risk factors and relationship to ANC services attendance: a population-based study. BMJ Open 2017; 7(2): e013155.
21. World Health Organization. Global status report on violence prevention 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014. Available from URL: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_ prevention/violence/ status_report/2014/en/.
22. Jewkes R, Fulu E, Tabassam Naved R, et al. Women's and men's reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women's risk factors for intimate partner violence: a multicountry cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific. PLoS MED 2017; 14(9): e1002381, doi: 10.1371/journal. pmed.1002381.
23. El-Nimr NA, Gouda SM, Helmy Wahdan IM. Violence against women in a slum area in Helwan, Cairo, Egypt: a community based survey. J Res Health Sci 2020; 20(1): e00466.
24. Mamdouh HM, Ismail HM, Kharboush IF, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for spousal violence among women attending health care centers in Alexandria, Egypt. East Mediterr Health J 2012; 18(11): 1118–1126, doi: 10.26719/2012.18.11.1118.
25. Fraser E. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on violence against women and girls. Development UAft2020; https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/resource-centre/impact-of-covid-19-pandemic-on-violence-against-women-and-girls/.
26. UN Women. COVID-19 and ending violence against women and girls; Gender-Based Violence 2020; https://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/wlpviolence/1.
27. George J, Nair D, Premkumar NR, et al. The prevalence of domestic violence and its associated factors among married women in a rural area of Puducherry, South India. J Family Med Prim Care 2016; 5(3): 672–676.
28. Abramsky T, Watts CH, GarciaMoreno C, et al. What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? Findings from the WHO multicountry study on women's health and domestic violence. BMC Public Health 2011; 11: 109.
29. Fahmy HH, Rahman AE. Determinants and health consequences of domestic violence among women in reproductive age at Zagazig District, Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2008; 83: 87–106.
30. Field S, Onah M, Heyningen T van, et al. Domestic and intimate partner violence among pregnant women in a low resource setting in South Africa. BMC Women’s Health 2018; 18(1): 1–13.
Copyright: © 2021 Family Medicine & Primary Care Review. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/), allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
Quick links
© 2022 Termedia Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Developed by Bentus.