eISSN: 2450-5722
ISSN: 2450-5927
Journal of Health Inequalities
Current issue Archive Online first About the journal Editorial board Abstracting and indexing Subscription Contact Instructions for authors Ethical standards and procedures
Editorial System
Submit your Manuscript
vol. 9
Original paper

Composition of human milk in women with the risk of postpartum depression symptoms

Agnieszka Dombrowska-Pali
1, 2
Agnieszka Chrustek
Grażyna Gebuza
Marzena Kaźmierczak

Department of Perinatology, Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Multi-Specialist Hospital of Dr Ludwik Błażek in Inowrocław, Poland
Department of Pathobiochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland
J Health Inequal 2023; 9 (1): 58–64
Online publish date: 2023/06/18
View full text Get citation
PlumX metrics:
Breast milk is seen not only as a nutritional substance, but also as a functional food. It contains many bioactive ingredients, including bacteria that are transferred, among other things, from the mother’s intestines to the child during breastfeeding. It is known that maternal postpartum psychiatric disorders can alter her intestine’s microbiota, which in turn can affect the bacteria present in the milk. However, it is not known whether postpartum mental disorders in women differentiate the nutritional composition and energy value of breast milk. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the content of total protein, fats, carbohydrates, dry matter and energy value of milk of women at risk of postpartum depression symptoms four weeks after delivery.

Material and methods:
The research was carried out in the fourth week after delivery. Seventy five women partici­pated. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) research tool was used in the study. The analysis of the human milk composition was performed with the Miris HMA.

The prevalence of the risk of PPD symptoms in the study sample was estimated at 28% on the EPDS. It was not found that the risk of PPD symptoms differentiate the nutritional composition and calorie content of human milk (p > 0.05).

Human milk is a perfectly selected and well-balanced food for a baby, regardless of the pre­sence or absence of the risk of postpartum depression symptoms in the study sample.


postpartum depression, breastfeeding, human milk

Quick links
© 2024 Termedia Sp. z o.o.
Developed by Bentus.