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ISSN: 1734-3402
Family Medicine & Primary Care Review
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vol. 23
Original paper

INKOLA based on Orem’s Self-Care Model and its effectiveness on the quality of life and HbA1C in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

Hotma Rumahorbo
Atin Karjatin
Ali Hamzah

  1. Nursing Program Study, Bandung Health Polytechnic, Indonesia
  2. Health Promotion Program Study, Bandung Health Polytechnic, Indonesia
Family Medicine & Primary Care Review 2021; 23(3): 341–346
Online publish date: 2021/10/05
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The quality of life for children with diabetes type 1 is determined by the ability of parents to care for their children independently. The INKOLA model was developed from the Dorothea Orem self-care deficit model, which emphasized educational support for patients’ self-care and independence.

This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the INKOLA model on the QoL and HbA1C of T1DM children.

Material and methods
Our quasi-experimental study with a control group was carried out on 42 T1DM children and their parents. The model of intervention was implemented for four months. QoL was measured twice in the third and fourth months. HbA1C was measured in the fourth month.

There was an improvement in QoL scores in the children after three months of the intervention, but the scores were not significantly different (78.67 ± 11.31 vs 73.01 ± 14.85, p = 0.173). After four months, there was an increase in the QoL score which was significantly different (80.93 ± 10.19 vs 70.80 ± 12.21, p < 0.001). The parents’ version of QoL scores after three and four months of intervention showed an improvement, but were not significantly different (three months, 78.42 ± 9.22 vs 78.27 ± 9.64, p = 0.961; four months, 79.62 ± 9.01 vs 78.63 ± 9.52, p = 0.734). The decrease of HbA1C in the intervention group was significant (8.80 ± 1.76 vs 10.59 ± 2.72, p = 0.014).

INKOLA based on the Orem Self-Care Model is effective in improving the QoL and in controlling HbA1C for T1DM.


diabetes mellitus type 1, self-care, glicated hemoglobin A, quality of life

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