eISSN: 1509-572x
ISSN: 1641-4640
Folia Neuropathologica
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
2/2019
vol. 57
 
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abstract:
Original paper

Neurotoxic effects of acrylamide on dopaminergic neurons in primary mesencephalic cell culture

Khaled Radad
,
Mubarak Al-Shraim
,
Ahmed Al-Emam
,
Rudolf Moldzio
,
Wolf-Dieter Rausch

Folia Neuropathol 2019; 57 (2): -196-204
Online publish date: 2019/06/13
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Introduction
Exposure to acrylamide is increasing worldwide as a result of its heavy use in industry and formation in carbohydrate-rich food cooked at high temperature. Despite its neurotoxicity, no studies have shown its toxic effects on dopaminergic neurons yet. Therefore, the current study was carried out to show whether acrylamide adversely affects primary cultured dopaminergic neurons.

Material and methods
Acrylamide (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2 mM) was added to two different groups of primary mesencephalic cell cultures on the 9th day in vitro for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Moreover, a group of cultures was treated with lower concentrations of acrylamide (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 mM) on the 6th day in vitro for 5 consecutive days to investigate its long-term effects on dopaminergic neurons. Following each treatment, culture media were obtained for measuring lactate dehydrogenase, and cultured cells were stained immunocytochemically against tyrosine hydroxylase and neuronal nuclear antigens.

Results
Treatment of cultures with acrylamide for 48 h significantly reduced the number of dopaminergic neurons, adversely altered the morphology of the surviving neurons and increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase in the culture media. Similar treatment of cultures with acrylamide also resulted in lower numbers of total neuronal cells as shown by a reduced expression of the neuronal nuclear antigen. Prolonged treatment of cultures with lower concentrations of acrylamide slightly reduced the survival of dopaminergic neurons but increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture media as well.

Conclusions
The current study shows, for the first time, neurotoxicity of acrylamide on dopaminergic neurons in the primary mesencephalic cell culture.

keywords:

acrylamide, dopaminergic neurons, neurotoxicity, neuronal nuclear antigen, Parkinson’s disease

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