eISSN: 2449-8580
ISSN: 1734-3402
Family Medicine & Primary Care Review
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vol. 19
Original paper

Pre-pregnancy BMI and intake of energy and calcium are associated with the vitamin D intake of pregnant Malaysian women

Heng Yaw Yong, Mohd Shariff Zalilah, Choi Wan Tan, Shi Jia Koo

Family Medicine & Primary Care Review 2017; 19(4): 417–423
Online publish date: 2017/12/08
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Background. Adequate vitamin D intake during pregnancy is important for prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Objectives. The present study aims to determine the intake and sources of vitamin D, as well as factors associated with vitamin D intake among pregnant Malaysian women.

Material and methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Seremban Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinic, Negeri Sembilan. Women (n = 314) were measured for height and weight and interviewed for socio-demographics, obstetrics, dietary intake, source of vitamin D, intake of vitamin D supplements and physical activity.

Results. One-third of pregnant women were overweight (21%) or obese (13%) with a mean pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) of 23.65 ± 5.29 kg/m². The mean vitamin D intake of pregnant women was 11.54 ± 0.45 μg/day (diet = 6.55 ± 4.43 μg/day; supplements = 4.99 ± 5.95 μg/day) with approx. 74.5% of intake being above recommendation levels. Milk and milk products showed the greatest contribution to vitamin D intake (56.8%). While women with higher energy (adjusted OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.01–0.87) and calcium (adjusted OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11–0.67) intake were more likely to have adequate vitamin D intake, obese women were less likely to have adequate vitamin D intake (adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.72–3.79).

Conclusions. Adequate intake of vitamin D was significantly associated with higher energy and calcium intake, but obese women tend to have inadequate intake. Further studies need to confirm these finding and the contribution of vitamin D intake to vitamin D status in pregnant Malaysian women.

pre-pregnancy BMI, energy intake, calcium intake, vitamin D intake

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