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Polish Journal of Pathology
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Original paper

Professor Witold Nowicki – a greatly spirited pathologist

Andrzej Wincewicz
,
Agnieszka Szepietowska
,
Stanisław Sulkowski

Pol J Pathol 2016; 67 (2): 102-107
Online publish date: 2016/08/02
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Introduction

This paper focuses on documentation of the life and scientific activity of a great pathologist, teacher and social activist – Witold Nowicki – on the basis of mainly Polish original sources. To reconstruct most reliably his biography and present his bibliography, we relied mostly on his own publications, which are cited here numerous times. Thus, this manuscript consists of a history of Witold Nowicki’s life, his major achievements and a description of him as a great teacher and social activist.

Early years, education and academic career

Witold Walerian Nowicki was born in Bochnia, Galicia, now in Poland, formerly Austro-Hungary, on 18 July 1878, and finished his life in tragic circumstances, being shot by Nazi Germans on the Wuleckie hills in Lvov at dawn on 4 July 1941 [1, 2, 3]. After he completed his secondary education at Saint Ann’s Comprehensive School in Cracow, he studied medicine to obtain an MD in 1902 at Jagiellonian University. In the same year he moved to Lvov, where he became an assistant at the Department of Anatomical Pathology led by Professor Andrzej Obrzut. Nowicki worked there for 39 years until his death. On the basis of his scientific achievements he received a professorship in the field of pathological anatomy in 1908 [1, 2]. From 1919 he supervised the academic department of anatomical pathology at King John Casmir University in Lvov (Polish: Uniwersytet Jana Kazimierza we Lwowie: UJK). In recognition of his virtues he was elected Dean of Lvov Medical Faculty, to hold this position twice in the years 1923-1924 and 1939 [3, 4].

Scientific activity

Nowicki provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in his publications in Virchow’s Archive titled: “Ueber chronisch entstehendes Gasblaschenemphysem (Pneumatosis cystoides)” and “Zur Entstehung und Aetiologie des Harnblasenemphysems” in 1909 and 1924 [5, 6]. Pneumatosis cystoides was first described by DuVernoi in XVIIIth century [7]. The merit of Witold Nowicki was the provision of both extensive microscopic and macroscopic description of these lesions in the walls of the intestines and urinary bladder [5, 6]. The histopathological hallmarks of the lesions are air-filled spaces which are intramural vesicles or cysts [8, 9]. These cavities are accompanied by macrophages and multinucleated giant cells [8, 9]. In the case of intestinal pneumatosis cystoides they are located inside the intestinal wall, particularly in the submucosa and subserosa, with a predilection for the small intestine [8, 9]. Pneumatosis cystoides can develop on the basis of various disorders of the gut, such as enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious colitis, disorders of connective tissue, diverticulosis as well endoscopic interventions, autoimmune diseases, pulmonary diseases such as cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive lung disease, etc. [10, 11, 12, 13].

Impact of Witold Nowicki on development of Polish anatomical pathology

Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, with authorship of over 82 publications [1, 2]. His Polish-written main reports included: “Growth of lung cancer in post mortem material from the Institute of Pathological Anatomy of UJK in Lvov” (1931) [14], “Pathogenesis of lung cancer” (1932) [15], “Studies on adrenal chromophilic substance of animals and humans in the course of renal disorder” (1909) [16] and “Histological pictures of scleroma, particularly at its end stages” (1933) [17]. Polish pathologists highly valued his monograph and related publications on scleroma [17, 18, 19]. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his authorship of the manual titled Pathological Anatomy, which remained a basic pathology handbook in Poland before WWII. It was naturally addressed to medical students and doctors. The book included hundreds of drawings and many illustrative tables with diagrams, and it was edited several times before WWII [20, 21, 22]. He was also a co-author of the praised manual Histopathological Diagnosis [23]. He revealed a morphological picture of renal alterations in the course of carbohydrate metabolism disorders experimentally induced by adrenalin in 1912 [24]. He dealt with tuberculosis in terms of both anatomical and histological aspects [25, 26, 27]. In 1913 his work titled “Superior aperture of thorax in the light of anatomical studies and its significance in apical lung tuberculosis” was awarded by the Warsaw Medical Association [27]. Nowicki was interested in many neoplastic tumors, particularly carcinomas [28, 29, 30]. He addressed the issue of so-called sarcomatoid carcinomas in 1905 [31]. He drew attention to a pituitary tumor case with acromegaly [32]. In the field of endocrine regulation, it was of particular value to report his achievements describing the functions of kidneys and adrenal glands in humans and animal species [16, 33]. He also investigated possible relationships between the adrenal glands and atherosclerosis [34]. Due to his great knowledge and interest in nephropathology he was chosen to conduct the historical analysis of the autopsy protocol of King John III Sobieski. In the result he concluded that the cause of the monarch’s death was chronic renal failure within renal and suprarenal insufficiency [35].
As director of a bacteriological analytical laboratory that investigated the causes of infectious diseases and epidemics, he published many works on typhoid, paratyphoid and dysentery [36, 37, 38, 39].
His modifications enabled detection of the smallest possible quantity of indole produced by the bacteria as a hallmark of presence of typhus or Escherichia coli [40]. He described the morphological changes in the aorta after injection of adrenaline into rabbits [41]. He also conducted experiments in the organs after application of extracts of the anterior and posterior lobe of the pituitary [42]. He attempted to demonstrate the relationship between the presence of the human roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and the incidence of liver abscesses [43]. He described a case of congenital absence of a part of the intestine [44]. Along with Stanislaw Orzechowski, he described Recklinghausen’s disease and tuberous sclerosis as lesions that appeared to be related anatomically [45]. He also studied the anatomical changes in cadavers as a result of gas poisoning from bullets [46].
Nowicki took an active part in scientific meetings, symposia and congresses [47, 48, 49]. In addition, he reported some congress topics, e.g. issues devoted to the necessity of Polish medical periodical publication [50], and the problem of early detection and management of appendicitis [51]. He also published a report about anti-alcoholic exposition [52]. Nowicki summed up the ‘Medical News’ in the forty years of its existence [53]. He was also the editor in chief of Lvov Medical Weekly and the Polish Medical Newspaper [54].

Social activity

Being a true social activist, he presided over the Lvov Medical Chamber, the Lvov Museum of Hygiene and the Lvov Committee against Cancer. He was involved in numerous social issues. Together with the leading pre-war Polish professor of dentistry Antoni Cieszynski, he appealed to the government for improvement of inappropriate hygiene conditions in the local dentistry department and called for establishment of a centre for training of future dentists [55]. He was interested in reasonable legal regulations for private clinics and organization of courses for medical doctors [56]. He appealed for opening the Polish Medical Association and publication of a bulletin of the society [57]. He wrote many obituaries remembering his former co-workers as well as their achievements and merits [58, 59, 60, 61].

Prophylaxis and spa rehabilitation in the plans of Witold Nowicki – the spa Morszyn-Zdrój

He actively fought for renovation and restoration of Morszyn-Zdrój as a health resort [62, 63, 64, 65, 66]. Thanks to his efforts, this Polish spa was modernized. Morszyn-Zdrój was the most elegant and modern health resort and spa in the vicinity of Lvov. It was a place where obesity, liver diseases, lithiasis, gastro-enteritis, nephrolithiasis and hyperacidity were treated. At that time Morszyn-Zdrój underwent many changes. In consequence, spa buildings such as salt and mud baths and numerous modern guesthouses were build. At this time of development, the resort was owned by the Association of Polish doctors in Lvov. During German occupation Morszyn was transformed into medical facilities of the army and became a military hospital.
During the night of 3/4 July 1941, Prof. Witold Nowicki and forty other Lvov professors were arrested by Einsatzkommando zur besonderen Verwendung under command of brigadefuhrer dr Karl Eberhard Schongarth, transported and shot to death at dawn on 4 July in the Wuleckie Hills [3, 67, 68]. It is very important to remember these eminent representatives of Polish science, who perished in such a dramatic way during World War Two [67, 68]. One of them was Witold Nowicki. At every step of his professional activity he was calm, efficient and very meticulous. Witold Nowicki was described as being “small in size but great in spirit” by one of his associates [67].
He is still recalled as an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, patient tutor and great social activist to follow.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the History of Pathology Working Group of the European Society of Pathology for selection of our abstract as the winner of the Travel Grant Competition for the Second International Meeting on the History of Pathology held at Archivio Antico, Palazzo Bo in Padua, Italy on June 4-6, 2015. We would like to thank the organizers for this outstanding initiative of the Society, which helps young doctors from all over the world to participate in such a global meeting with a vibrant scientific atmosphere and lots of challenging tasks related not only to the history of pathology but also to medical heritage in general.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

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2. Śródka A, et al. Biogramy uczonych polskich, Część VI: Nauki medyczne zeszyt 1: M-Z [Biographical sketches of polish scientists. Part VI. Book M-Z]. Ossolineum, Wroclaw 1991. [in Polish]
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5. Nowicki W. Ueber chronisch entstehendes Gasblaschenemphysem (Pneumatosis cystoides) [About chronic arising “gas bubble emphysema”]. Virchows Archiv fur pathologie Anatomie und Physiologie und fur klinsche Medizin 1909; 198: 143-182.
6. Nowicki W. Zur Entstehung und Aetiologie des Harnblasenemphysems [On the origin and pathology of the bladder emphysema]. Virchows Archiv fur pathologsche Anatomie und Physiologie und fur klinische Medizin 1924; 253: 1-10.
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13. BuluĝH, Köklü S, Yavuz A et al. Bowel obstruction caused by repeated upper GI endoscopy-induced pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. Gastrointest Endosc 2012; 76: 228-229.
14. Nowicki W. Sprawa przyrostu raka płuc w świetle materjału sekcyjnego Instytutu Anatomji Patologicznej U. J. K. we Lwowie. [Report of increase in lung cancer cases in autopsy material of Institute of Pathological Anatomy UJK in Lvov]. Pol Gaz Lek 1931; 10: 99. [in Polish]
15. Nowicki W. Patogeneza raka płuc [Pathogenesis of lung cancer]. Nowotwory 1932; 7: 281-286. [in Polish]
16. Nowicki W. Badania nad istotą chromochłonną nadnerczy zwierząt i ludzi w schorzeniach nerek [Studies on chromaffin matter of suprarenal glands of animal and humans in renal disorders]. Gaz Lek 1909; 44: 729-733, 751-756, 767-771, 790-793, 809-812, 859-862, 925-929, 947-95. [in Polish]
17. Nowicki W. Obrazy histologiczne twardzieli, szczególnie w jej okresie zejściowym [Histological pictures of scleroma, particularly at its end stage]. Pol Gaz Lek 1933; 12; 696-700. [in Polish]
18. Nowicki W. Twardziel na stale sekcyjnym [Scleroma on autopsy]. Pol Gaz Lek 1932; 11: 569-571. [in Polish]
19. Nowicki W. Twardziel pod względem anatomicznym [Scleroma in anatomic view]. Pol Gaz Lek 1927; 6: 528-531. [in Polish]
20. Nowicki W. Anatomja patologiczna podręcznik do użytku studentów i lekarzy. Część ogólna [Pathological Anatomy: handbook for students and medical doctors. General Part]. Drukarnia Gubrynowicza i syna. Druk W.L. Anczyca i spółki Kraków 1928; 596. [in Polish]
21. Nowicki W. Anatomja patologiczna szczegółowa. Podręcznik do użytku studentów i lekarzy Tom I [Systemic Pathological Anatomy. Handbook for students and medical doctors. Volume I]. Polska Akademia Umiejętności, Kraków 1936; 638. [in Polish]
22. Nowicki W. Anatomja patologiczna szczegółowa. Podręcznik do użytku studentów i lekarzy. Tom II [Systemic Pathological Anatomy. Handbook for students and medical doctors. Volume II]. Polska Akademia Umiejętności, Kraków 1936; 471. [in Polish]
23. Nowicki W, Opoczyński K. Djagnostyka histologiczno – patologiczna / podręcznik dla studentów medycyny [Histopathological diagnostics – a handbook for students of medicine]. Wyd. Koła medyków Uniw. Stef. Bat., Wilno 1926; 158. [in Polish]
24. Nowicki W. Anatomiczny stan nerek przy adrenalinowym zaburzeniu przemiany węglowodanów (Studium doświadczalne) [Anatomical condition of kidneys in course of adrenalin-induced disorder of carbohydrates’ metabolism (Experimental study)]. Lwowski Tygodnik Lekarski 1912; 80: 8. [in Polish]
25. Nowicki W. Gruźlica krtani ze stanowiska anatomopatologicznego [Tuberculosis of larynx from anatomopathological point of view]. Lwowski Tyg Lek 1910; 5: 585-590, 602-605, 617-619. [in Polish]
26. Nowicki W. Konstytucja w gruźlicy [General constitution in tuberculosis]. Gruźlica 1926; 1: 344-356. [in Polish]
27. Nowicki W. Otwór górny klatki piersiowej w świetle badań anatomicznych i stosunek jego gruźlicy płuc pochodzenia szczytowego [Superior apertura of thorax in light of anatomical studies and its relation to apical pulmonary tuberculosis]. Pam Tow Lek 1914; 110: 1-67, 137-175, 259-283. [in Polish]
28. Nowicki W. Co to jest choroba raka i na czem polega jej zwalczanie? Z 20 rycinami [What disease is cancer and what is a fight against it? With 20 charts]. Książnica-Atlas. Zjednoczone Zakłady Kartograficzne i wydawnicze Tow. Naucz. Szkół Śred. I Wyższ. sp. akc. Klisze, skład i druk wykonano w zakładach Graficznych S. A. Ksiąznica Bibljoteczka Higjeniczna, Lwów-Warszawa, zeszyt 1928; 14: 49. [in Polish]
29. Nowicki W. O chorobie raka i jej zwalczaniu [On cancer disease and on fighting against it]. Wydawnictwa Polskiego Komitetu do Zwalczania Raka. Serja popularna. Księgarnia Wydawnicza H. Altenberga. Drukarnia Dziennika Polskiego we Lwowie. Lwów 1922; 73. [in Polish]
30. Nowicki W. Rak – jako zagadnienie w nauce [Cancer as an issue in science]. Pol Gaz Lek 1939; 18: 1-3. [in Polish]
31. Nowicki W. Przyczynek do utkania tzw. raków mięsakowatych (sarcocarcinoma). [Contribution to texture of sarcocarcinomas]. Now Lek 1905; 17: 511-518. [in Polish]
32. Nowicki W. Przypadek guza przysadki mózgowej z akromegalią. Księga pamiątkowa XI Zjazdu lekarzy i przyrodników polskich w Krakowie 18-22 lipca 1911 [Case of tumor of pituitary gland with acromegaly. Memory Book of 11th Symposium of Medical Doctors and Biologists in Cracow18-22 July 1911]. Kraków 1912; 414-415. [in Polish]
33. Nowicki W. Dalsze badania doświadczalne nad stosunkiem nadnercza do nerki [Further experimental studies on relation of suprarenal gland to kidney]. Lwowski Tyg Lek 1910; 5: 439-441. [in Polish]
34. Nowicki W, Hornowski J. Nadnercze a miażdżyca [Suprarenal gland and arteriosclerosis]. Przeg Lek 1908; 47: 15-16, 31-32. [in Polish]
35. Nowicki W. Sekcya zwłok króla Jana III [Autopsy of king John III’s cadvers]. Przeg Lek 1908; 47: 523-524, 534-535, 549-551. [in Polish]
36. Nowicki W. Przypadki czerwonki z wykazaniem zarazka także poza przewodem pokarmowym [Cases of dysentery with detection of patogen also outside of alimentary tract]. Pol Gaz Lek 1917; 51: 377-380, 388-391. [in Polish]
37. Nowicki W. Przypadki czerwonki z wykazaniem zarazka także poza przewodem pokarmowym [Cases of dysentery with detection of patogen also outside of alimentary tract]. Warszawa 1917; 8: 20. [in Polish]
38. Nowicki W. O skombinowanem zastosowaniu pośrednich sposobów w badaniu stolców tyfusowych, paratyfusowych i czerwonkowych [On combined appliance of indirect methods in examination of stools of typhus, paratyphus, and dysentery-infected patients]. Kraków. Reprint from Przegl Lek 1917; 8: 2. [in Polish]
39. Nowicki W. Zmiany anatomo-patologiczne w paratyfusie [Anatomopathological alterations in paratyphus]. Przegl Lek 1917; 56: 408-411, 419-421, 423-424. [in Polish]
40. Nowicki W. Zmieniony odczyn Erlicha-Bohmego w badaniu hodowli bakteryjnych co do indolu. [Alterated Ehrlich-Böhme’s reaction in studies of bacterial colonies in aspect of indole]. Przeg Lek 1917; 56: 313-314. [in Polish]
41. Nowicki W. Zmiany w tętnicy głównej królików po śródżylnych wstrzykiwaniach adrenaliny [Changes of rabbit aorta after intravenous administration of adrenalin]. Now Lek 1907; 19: 535-538, 589-593. [in Polish]
42. Nowicki W. Badania doświadczalne nad wpływem śródżylnie przez czas dłuższy wstrzykiwanych wyciągów z części tylnej przysadki na niektóre narządy królika. Księga pamiątkowa XI Zjazdu lekarzy i przyrodników polskich w Krakowie 18-22 lipca 1911 [Experimental studies on influence of intravenously administered extracts of posterior lobe of pituitary gland on some organs in rabbits for longer period of time. Memory Book of 11th Symposium of Medical Doctors and Biologists in Cracow18-22 July 1911] Kraków 1912; 516-517, 413-414. [in Polish]
43. Nowicki W. Przyczynek do kazuistyki ropni wątroby, wywołanych przez glistę ludzką [Contribution to cases of ascaris lumbricoides induced liver abscesses]. Gaz. Lek 1913; 48: 894-896. [in Polish]
44. Nowicki W. Przyczynek do kazuistyki wrodzonego braku części jelita grubego [Contribution to congenital lack of part of large bowel]. Now Lek 1908; 20: 641-646. [in Polish]
45. Nowicki W, Orzechowski S. Stwardnienie guzowate i choroba Recklinghansena jako jednostki chorobowe anatomicznie pokrewne. Księga pamiątkowa XI Zjazdu lekarzy i przyrodników polskich w Krakowie 18-22 lipca 1911 [Tuberous scelrosis and Recklinghansen’s disaeses as anatomically related entities. Memory Book of 11th Symposium of Medical Doctors and Biologists in Cracow18-22 July 1911]. Kraków 1912; 513-514. [in Polish]
46. Nowicki W. Zmiany anatomiczne u zmarłych w krótki czas po zatruciu gazami z pocisków [Anatomical alterations of decedents in short time after intoxitaction with bullet gases] Lek Wojsk 1920; 1: 3-16. [in Polish]
47. Nowicki W. Sprawozdanie z posiedzeń sekcyi patologicznej X Zjazdu Lek. i Przyr. Polskich we Lwowie [Report on meetings of pathological section of 10th Symposium of Medical Doctors and Biologists in Lvov]. Now Lek 1907; 19: 480-484. [in Polish]
48. Nowicki W. XIII Zjazd lekarzy i przyrodników polskich w Wilnie [13th Symposium of Medical Doctors and Biologists in Vilnius]. Pol Gaz Lek 1929; 8: 780-781. [in Polish]
49. Nowicki W. Pamiętnik XV Zjazdu Lekarzy i Przyrodników polskich we Lwowie 4-7 VII 1937. Pod protektoratem pana prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej prof. dra. Ignacego Mościckiego [Diary of 15th Symposium of Medical Doctor and Biologists in Lvov Lwowie 4-7 VII 1937. Under patronage of Polish Republic President Prof. dr. Ignacy Mościcki]. Nakładem Komitetu Organizacyjnego XV Zjazdu Lekarzy i Przyrodników Polskich. Druk: Pierwsza Związkowa Drukarnia we Lwowie, ul. Lindego 4.8. Lwów. 1939; 4. [in Polish]
50. Nowicki W. W sprawie naszego lekarskiego piśmiennictwa periodycznego [In case of our medical periodicals]. Pol Gaz 1926; 5: 13-14. [in Polish]
51. Nowicki W. Sprawozdanie z posiedzeń naukowych XIII-XVII poświęconych sprawie zapalenia wyrostka robaczkowego [Report on scientific meetings XIII-XVII on the topic of appendecitis]. Gaz Lek 1908; 43: 725-728, 749-751, 773-776, 797-800, 820-821. [in Polish]
52. Nowicki W. Wystawa przeciwalkoholowa [Anti-alcocholic exposition]. Pol Gaz Lek 1932, 11: 75. [in Polish]
53. Nowicki W. Nowinom Lekarskim w czterdziestolecie ich istnienia [To Medical Messages at 40th anniversary of this journal]. Pol Gaz Lek 1928; 7: 857. [in Polish]
54. Nowicki W. Z dziejów Lwowskiego Tygodnika Lekarskiego i jego następcy, organów Towarzystwa Lekarskiego Lwowskiego [From history of Lvov Medical Weekly, his follower and organs of Lvov Medical Association]. Pol Gaz Lek 1928; 7: 377-379, 392-396, 415-418, 439-442. [in Polish]
55. Nowicki W, Cieszyński A, Domaszewicz A. Odezwa do Rządu w sprawie brudnej Kliniki Stomatologicznej we Lwowie i stworzenia także placówki kształcenia stomatologii [Appeal to Polish Government in case of dirty Department of Dentistry in Lvov and letter for creation of Dentistry Teaching Centre in Lvov]. Pol Stom 1938; 6: 207-222. [in Polish]
56. Nowicki W. W sprawie prywatnych poradni i kursów lekarskich [In case of private outpatients’ sections and medical courses]. Now Społ-Lek 1931; 5: 331-332. [in Polish]
57. Nowicki W, Franke U. W sprawie utworzenia Związku polskich towarzystw lekarskich i wydawania jego naukowego biuletynu [In case of establishment of Polish Medical Societies Association and editio of its scientific bulletin]. Pol Gaz Lek 1925; 4: 26-27. [in Polish]
58. Nowicki W. Andrzej Obrzut. (Wspomnienie pośmiertne) [Andrzej Obrzut. (Obituary)]. Przegl Lek 1910; 49: 600. [in Polish]
59. Nowicki W. Dr. Roman Zagórski (Wspomnienie pośmiertne) [Dr Roman Zagórski. (Obituary)] Pol Gaz Lek 1927; 6: 219- 220. [in Polish]
60. Nowicki W. Dr Stanisław Markiewicz. (Wspomnienie pośmiertne) [Dr Stanisław Markiewicz. (Obituary)] Lwowski Tyg Lek 1911; 6: 654. [in Polish]
61. Nowicki W. Dr Szczepan Mikołajski. (Wspomnienie pośmiertne) [Dr Szczepan Mikołajski. (Obituary)] Now Społ-Lek 1929; 3: 414-415. [in Polish]
62. Nowicki W. Morszyn[Morszyn]. Pol Gaz Lek 1932; 12: 814-815. [in Polish]
63. Nowicki W. Morszyn-Zdrój u progu czterechsetlecia odkrycia jego źródeł. [Morszyn Spa at the 400th anniversary of discovery of its springs]. Pol Gaz Lek 1937; 16: 403-405. [in Polish]
64. Nowicki W. Morszyn-Zdrój w stanie obecnym. [Morszyn Spa in present state]. Pol Gaz Lek 1938; 17: 436-437. [in Polish]
65. Nowicki W. Nieco o Morszynie-Zdroju. [A Little bit about Morszyn]. Pol Gaz Lek 1933; 12: 385-386. [in Polish]
66. Nowicki W. Otwarcie Domu Zdrojowego w Morszynie – Zdroju [Openning of health-resort Centre in Morszyn Spa]. Pol Gaz Lek 1938; 17: 645–648. [in Polish]
67. Bonusiak W. Kto zabił profesorów lwowskich? [Who killed Lvovian Professors?]] 1st ed. Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza, Rzeszów 1989. [in Polish]
68. Lanckorońska K. Michelangelo in Ravensbruck: One Woman’s War Against the Nazis. Da Capo Press/Perseus, Cambridge, MA, United States 2007; 368. (First published as Wspomnienia wojenne [War Memoirs]. Znak, Kraków 2001 [in Polish]).

Address for correspondence

Andrzej Wincewicz MD, PhD, FEBP Department of Pathology
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Jan Kochanowski University
IX Wieków Kielc 19
25-317 Kielce, Poland
tel. +48 41 349 69 01/09
fax +48 41 349 69 16
e-mail: andwinc@gmail.com
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