eISSN: 2084-9885
ISSN: 1896-6764
Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia/Neuropsychiatry and Neuropsychology
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
3-4/2009
vol. 4
 
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abstract:

Reviev article
Cooperation between glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in the central nervous system

Halina Car

Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia 2009; 4, 3-4: 116-125
Online publish date: 2009/12/09
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Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and it is the precursor of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA. It is estimated that over 50% of neurons in the brain are glutamatergic and up to 40% of brain neurons may utilize GABA. A physiologic processes require a balance between glutamate-mediated excitatory and GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission. The proper cooperation between these neurotransmitters represents a fundamental mechanism for controlling nervous system function. Presynaptic glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors control glutamate and GABA release at many synapses in the nervous system. The glutamate and GABA can be released by the same neuron and this may enhance the spatial and temporal control of synaptic transmission and participate in the maturation of synapses, in motor activity and it is the homeostatic opposition to hyperexcitability, e.g. during seizures. The synaptic plasticity which is basis for neurogenesis in adults and during development as well as in learning and memory processes is strongly dependent on activity these systems. The modulation of proteolytic activity of extracellular matrix in the brain is probably under control excitatory and inhibitory transmission. The disbalance between glutamate and GABA is observed in elderly and may participate in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders including Huntington’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, schizophrenia, stroke and many others. The understanding mechanism of cooperation between glutamate and GABA is important for discovery new therapies of CNS.
keywords:

glutamate, GABA, cooperation, brain, diseases

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