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ISSN: 1233-9687
Polish Journal of Pathology
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vol. 75
Case report

Spontaneous expulsion of a colorectal leiomyosarcoma

Pierre de Mathelin
Felix Lerintiu
Jean-Baptiste Delhorme

  1. Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France
  2. Hôpitaux Civils de Colmar, Colmar, France
Pol J Pathol 2024; 75 (1): 61-62
Online publish date: 2024/04/11
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A 79-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our outpatient clinic with a freezer bag containing an irregularly shaped mass that had been spontaneously defecated 3 hours previously (Fig. 1). The patient reported a recent history of constipation and blood in her stool. Her past medical history included hypertension, hypothyroidism, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. A physical examination did not reveal signs of weight loss or anaemia. Histopathology of the mass revealed a tumour composed of sheets containing densely packed, elongated spindle-shaped cells with cigar-shaped centrally-located nuclei and abundant fibrillar eosinophilic cytoplasm. Mitotic figures were observed. There were also foci of haemorrhage, cystic degeneration, and necrosis (Figs. 2, 3). Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the tumour expressed SMA, desmin, and h-caldesmon and was negative for CD117 (c-KIT), CD34, and DOG-1 (Fig. 4). After reviewing histology slides in a sarcoma reference centre, the tumour was diagnosed as a grade 2 (FNCLCC) colorectal dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma. The mitotic index was 14 mitoses per 10 hpf in well-differentiated areas and 42 mitoses per 10 hpf in dedifferentiated areas. Rectosigmoidoscopy was performed and revealed blood clots in the lumen of the sigmoid colon near to the remnant of a small haemorrhagic pedicle. Two vascular clips were used to stop the bleeding. No metastases were identified. The case was reviewed by a multidisciplinary team, who decided to perform wide surgical resection due to the large size and dedifferentiation of the tumour and the endoscopic findings. The patient underwent a laparoscopic resection of the sigmoid colon without lymph node dissection. Histopathology of the resected tissue revealed fibrous and inflammatory changes without neoplastic lesions. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 5 days after surgery. After 78 months of follow-up, the patient is still free of disease.
Colorectal leiomyosarcomas are tumours of poor prognosis with only a few cases described in the literature [1–3]. The clinical presentation does not differ from other colorectal cancers, as most are asymptomatic at the early stages and symptomatic forms (rectal bleeding or obstruction) appear later on. Radiological features are non-specific. Final diagnosis can only be confirmed after thorough histopathology examination of the biopsy sample or the resected specimen [4]. Leiomyosarcoma is characterized...

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