eISSN: 2083-8441
ISSN: 2081-237X
Pediatric Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism
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vol. 24
Original paper

Initial Fluid Therapy in Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A comparison of Hypertonic Saline Solution and Normal Saline Solution

Obeid Shafi
Virendra Kumar

Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2018;24,2:56-64
Online publish date: 2018/10/02
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Introduction. The optimal fluid therapy in children with DKA is a matter of debate, especially if we take into account its association with cerebral edema, the most important complication. Hypertonic Saline Solution is used in the treatment of cerebral edema, and also has been used for volume resuscitation in children with shock. Aim of study. To compare the effects of 3% saline and 0.9% saline solutions on changes in vital parameters, sodium and chloride levels, lactate and pH; time needed for the correction of hyperglycemia; time needed for the control of ketoacidosis and incidence of cerebral edema. Methods. Open-label prospective RCT in which 40 children with moderate to severe DKA were randomized to receive either 3% saline or 0.9% saline as initial fluid therapy. Results. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the clinical vital parameters, time for the correction of hyperglycemia and the resolution of acidosis. Patients in the 3% saline group had a higher increase in sodium and chloride from baseline compared to the 0.9% saline group. The acidemia was noted to worsen in both groups after the initiation of fluid therapy, which was not associated with clinical deterioration. The frequency of cerebral edema was similar in both groups. Conclusions. Both 0.9% saline and 3% saline were equally effective as initial fluid in children with DKA with respect to hemodynamic improvement, the resolution of acidosis and the correction of hyperglycemia, but the use of 3% saline solution did not preclude the development of cerebral edema and has the potential to cause hypernatremia, hyperchloremia and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis.

diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetes mellitus, type 1, cerebral edema, hypertonic saline solution

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