eISSN: 2299-551X
ISSN: 0011-4553
Journal of Stomatology
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vol. 77
Original paper

Anatomical variations of mandibular lingual foramen and its bony canals in Turkish Cypriot population: a cone-beam computed tomography study

Aida Kurbanova
Berfu Cerci Ongun
Nimet Ilke Akcay
Kaan Orhan
4, 5

  1. Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Near East University, Cyprus
  2. Department of Anatomy, Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus
  3. Department of Biostatistics, Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus
  4. Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Ankara University, Turkey
  5. Medical Design Application and Research Center (MEDITAM), Ankara University, Turkey
J Stoma 2024; 77, 2: 129-135
Online publish date: 2024/05/29
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It is important to determine anatomical structures to prevent complications, which may occur in surgical interventions, e.g., implantation, in the midline region of the mandible, obtaining a graft from this region, genioplasty procedure, and post-traumatic fixation.

The current study aimed to investigate mandibular lingual foramen (LF) anatomical variations and their associated vascular canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Material and methods:
CBCT images from 329 patients (mean age, 43.31 years) were examined. These images, with a 512 × 512 matrix, were processed using InVivo version 5.1.2 software (Anatomage; San Jose, CA, USA). Anatomical classification was performed based on LF location and quantity, with a separate classification of LFs in the mandibular midline region.

Among the analyzed images, 99.4% (n = 327) displayed LF. In majority, single LF was observed in 54.4% (n = 179), two LFs were seen in 29.5% (n = 97), three LFs in 13.1% (n = 43), and four LFs were noted in 2.1% (n = 7) of patients. The most common type was midline LF, present in 83% (n = 273) of cases. A combination of midline and paramedian types was noted in 15.2% (n = 50), while the paramedian type alone or combined with the posterior type was not found in any image.

The anatomy and location of LF differ considerably among the Turkish Cypriot population. Pre-operative CBCT imaging is recommended to determine the exact location of LF in order to prevent possible surgical complications in patients who are planning for oral implants in the anterior region of the mandible.


computed tomography, anatomical variations, lingual foramen, lingual vascular canal

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