eISSN: 2299-0038
ISSN: 1643-8876
Menopause Review/Przegląd Menopauzalny
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
 
3/2021
vol. 20
 
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abstract:
Original paper

Cytomegalovirus infections in pregnant women as a risk of congenital deafness in a child

Wiesław Konopka
1
,
Małgorzata Śmiechura-Gańczarczyk
1
,
Ranata Pepaś
1

1.
Department of Otolaryngology, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital-Research Institute, Lodz, Poland
Menopause Rev 2021; 20(3): 122-126
Online publish date: 2021/09/24
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Introduction
One per cent of live births are affected by cytomegalovirus infection, but 90% of neonates with perinatal infection do not show symptoms of disease. Symptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) is present in 5–10% of children. Typical clinical signs of congenital cytomegalovirus infection are microcephalia, mental retardation, progressive major amblyacousia, and neuromuscular infection. Hypoacusis is present in 30–60% of children with congenital symptomatic CMV – in most cases it is bilateral and applies to high-frequency hearing loss.

Material and methods
A group of 70 children had serological and genetic screening of viral DNA using the polymerase chain reaction method in urine and blood. In this group, 52 children were diagnosed with congenital CMV, and 10 children were diagnosed with acquired CMV. Audiological examinations including pure-tone audiometry, auditory brainstem response, transiently evoked otoacoustic emission, and immittance audiometry were performed.

Results
Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was in 9 children associated with mental and physical retardation, brain malformation, and microcephalia. Unilateral hearing loss was observed in 3 children. In 40 cases, we did not observe hearing loss, although the level of bilirubin was high, as well as splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and facial nerve paralysis.

Conclusions
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection often caused hearing loss. Children with congenital and acquired CMV should be under the permanent care of an audiologist. The growing problem of CMV infections and their late diagnosis suggests the need to prepare screening tests and increase the education of gynaecologists, neonatologists, paediatricians, and general practice doctors about CMV problems.

keywords:

pregnancy, CMV, children, hearing loss

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