eISSN: 2084-9885
ISSN: 1896-6764
Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia/Neuropsychiatry and Neuropsychology
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vol. 12
Original paper

Effectiveness of GRADYS – a cognitive training with elements of virtual reality, in adults older than 60 and without cognitive impairment

Ludmiła Zając-Lamparska
Paweł Izdebski
Monika Wiłkość-Dębczyńska

Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia 2017; 12, 4: 143–151
Online publish date: 2018/03/23
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The level of cognitive function decreases with age, which can have negative consequences for the autonomy and activity of the older adults and their self-assessment. Therefore, the interest of researchers for many years is the effectiveness of various types of interventions that improve the cognition. Nowadays, new possibilities in the field of psychological interactions are provided by virtual reality technology. It can also be used in cognitive trainings to improve their effectiveness and attractiveness.

Aim of the study
Evaluate the usefulness of the GRADYS simulation game with elements of virtual reality among people over 60 years of age without dementia (the minimum MMSE score: 27).

Material and methods
The study involved 75 people aged 60 to 88 who for four weeks participated in eight cognitive training sessions using GRADYS software. The training cycle was preceded and completed by assessment of cognitive functions in terms of memory, attention, verbal and visuospatial functions.

The results indicate the progress in the trained tasks and improvement in the cognitive measures of memory, attention, executive functions and psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, visual analysis and synthesis, and the ability of abstract visualization of visual material. However, there was no improvement in the immediate memory span. The obtained results support the thesis of value of the game with elements of virtual reality as a tool for cognitive training in older adults. At the same time, the study plan without the control group is a limitation and suggests a careful interpretation of the results.


cognitive training, cognitive aging, virtual reality

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