eISSN: 2299-551X
ISSN: 0011-4553
Journal of Stomatology
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vol. 76
Original paper

Evaluation of lingual mandibular depression of submandibular salivary glands and its relation to inferior alveolar canal using cone beam computed tomography in Malaysian population: a cross sectional study

Tanay Vijaykumar Chaubal
Huey Fen Lim
Shai Li Seun
Ranjeet Bapat
Sham Kishor Kanneppedy

Division of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
0ral Medicine, Radiology and Diagnosis, Private Practice, India
J Stoma 2023; 76, 4: 219-225
Online publish date: 2023/12/15
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n the forensic field, different races or ethnicity present various skeletal status or skull pattern, which aid in racial identification.

Our study evaluated the deepest lingual concavity depth in the posterior region of the mandible, and its relation to the inferior alveolar canal using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and to associate the findings to different gender, age, and race in Malaysia.

Material and methods
A retrospective analysis of 384 CBCT scans was done on both left and right sides of the mandible. Position of the deepest lingual concavity depth was evaluated in relation to the inferior alveolar canal, and categorized into 3 groups: above the canal, at the same level as the canal, and below the canal. Analysis was carried out for different gender, age groups, and races in Malaysia.

The mean age of the study participants was 36.6 ± 14.6 years, and there was no significant relationship between the deepest lingual concavity depth and age. The mean lingual concavity depth was 2.23 ± 0.76 mm in male subjects, and 1.74 ± 0.61 mm in female subjects. The mean lingual concavity depth was highest in Indian (2.20 ± 0.73 mm), followed by Malay (2.00 ± 0.73 mm), and Chinese (1.80 ± 0.69 mm) populations.

Due to variations in the depth and the risk of penetration, with decision made solely on lingual concavity depth and its relation to the inferior alveolar canal, the assessment of implant fixture site is recommended to be done on a case-by-case basis during pre-operative planning for dental implant surgery.


dental implants, mandible, salivary glands, inferior alveolar canal, cone beam computed tomography

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